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Material Exam2

Words to know for Materials Engineering

QuestionAnswer
Modulus Stiffness; resistance to elastic deformation.
Strength Resistance to plastic deformation.
Hardness Resistance to localized plastic deformation.
Toughness Resistance to fracture.
Elongation Extent of ductility...strain to fracture.
Fatigue Resistance Resistance to failure by damage accumulation.
Elastic Deformation Material reverts back to original shape and size after removal of loads. -Caused by separation of atoms.
Plastic Deformation Application and removal of load results in permanent change in shape/size. -Caused by defect or molecular motion.
Linear Densisty Number of atoms centered on a direction vector/length of the vector.
Planar Density Number of atoms centered on a plane/area of the plane.
Ionic Bond Low and High electro-negativity.
Covalent Bond 2 or more atoms of high electro-negativity.
Metallic Bond Metals; low electro-negativity of both.
Crystalline Defect Lattice irregularity having one or more dimensions on the order of an atomic diameter.
Point Defects Affect chemical and electrical properties, as well as determining phases for a given composition.
Line defects responsible for plastic deformation and lower than theoretical strength.
Planar Defects Defines internal and external boundaries that affect strength, diffusion, and shape.
Volume Defects Can harden material by interacting with other defects...or lead to failure.
Vacancies Absense of atoms
Interstitials Atoms of elements different than those comprising the basis for the lattice.
Self-Interstitual "extra" atom positioned between atomic sites.
The number of Vacancies... Increases Rapidly with Temperature.
Vacancies Occur -Upon Solidification -Due to atomic vibrations -By radiation damage
Frankel Defect A cation vacancy - cation interstitial pair.
Shottky Defect A paired set of cation and anion vacancies
Edge Dislocation Displacement is perpendicular to axis.
Burger's Vector measure of lattice distortion.
Screw Dislocation Displacement is parallel to Axis.
Grain Boundaries Regions between crystals transition from lattice of one region to that of the other.
Stacking Fault A stacking fault is a misregistry in the stacking sequence.
Interdiffusion in a allow, atoms tend to migrate from regions of high concentration, to regions of low concentrations.
Diffusion Process of mass transport that involves the movement of one atomic species into another.
Assumption Occurs by random atomic jumps from one position to another.
Why are jumps more frequent in higher temperatures? Because of the higher thermal energy of the atoms, so the diffusion rate is more rapid.
Vacancy Diffusions Atoms exchange with vacancies; applies to substitution impurities atom. Rate depends on: Number of Vacancies; activation energy exchange.
Interstitial Diffusion Smaller atoms can diffuse between atoms. *More rapid then vacancy diffusion.
Case Hardening Diffuse carbon atoms into the host iron atoms at the surface.
Created by: dtp3212