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L&C Final Review

Stasser's Learning and Cog Final Review

QuestionAnswer
Top-down processing is the kind of processing that draws heavily on our knowledge, expectations, and past experiences, as compared to the input information itself.
Bottom-up processing refers to the processing of the actual environmental stimuli with that processing determined only by the nature of those stimuli (data) themselves.
The distinction between serial versus parallel processing is whether two cognitive processes are performed one after the other (serial) or at the same time (parallel).
sensory memory is the memory store very briefly that contains perceptual “copies” called icons or echoes
Sperling’s whole-report procedure for assessing memory underestimated its capacity because information decayed before it could be reported
template matching Matching environmental input with exact mental copies
feature analysis Breaking a stimulus down into a set of defining cues and comparing that set to stored sets of defining cues
prototype Ideal type surrounded by fuzzy boundaries
working memory All of the information we are actively thinking about right now
Chunking information more efficiently is the way to most easily get more information into your working memory.
The point of a distractor task such as counting backwards by threes before recall is to prevent rehearsal
Declarative knowledge (“knowing that”) consists of information that typically can be communicated verbally.
Procedural knowledge (“knowing how”) is knowledge of how to perform cognitive or motor skills.
Episodic memory is long-term retention of specific events in one’s life
declarative memory is long-term retention of a specific fact or concept.
When you learn a skill such as keyboarding knowledge is first declarative and then becomes procedural
The major difference between cognitive and behavioral explanations in psychology is that cognitive scientists give more causal status to internal processes than do behavioral psychologists.
The cocktail party phenomenon is replicated in the laboratory by studies using dichotic listening task.
A recall test is a memory test where we must both generate the response and recognize that it is correct
Mnemonics are strategies for more efficient encoding in memory
encoding specificity The general principle that recall will in part be a function of the similarity of the context at encoding and retrieval
According to Loftus’ research, eyewitness memory far less reliable than most people believe.
Most mnemonic techniques improve memory by making items to be recalled more vivid or meaningful.
Surface structure the organization that describes the sequences of phrases in a sentence as it is actually spoken.
Deep structure the underlying structure that specifies the meaning of a sentence.
A morpheme the smallest unit of language that has meaning.
Metacognition knowledge, awareness, and the monitoring of one’s own cognitions.
Functional fixedness the tendency to think of objects as functioning in a particular way and failing to perceive other ways the object might be useful.
Set effects the persistence of an old strategy in a new situation and is demonstrated by the Luchins Water Jar Problem
Whorfian (or linguistic relativity) hypothesis The idea that language leads us to perceive and think about the world in particular ways is called the
An example of support for the use of rules of grammar the fact that children produce sentences which they have never heard is taken as.
Imitation appears to be at best only a small part of language learning. Learning a language is very much a matter of learning the set of rules which governs the use of language.
Code-switching concerns how bilinguals use their two languages in conversation. Without incurring additional time, bilinguals code switch as a means to maximize the way they convey the intended meaning of their utterances.
Phonemic restoration refers to the tendency of a listener to “fill in” a missing phoneme while hearing sentences.
The primary function of pattern recognition to add meaning to the sensory information
Backward masking studies have been very helpful in establishing the duration of the sensory register.
The backward masking studies have been used to confirm Sperling’s estimate of the duration of the sensory register
The primary problem for template theories of pattern recognition is the requirement of a very rapid search through a large amount of information in long-term memory.
Geon the structural component of structural theories
The major advantage of a feature theory of pattern recognition the smaller (compared to template theory) amount of information needed to recognize large numbers of patterns
Studies of dichotic listening show that nonshadowed material is processed for some meaning.
In the secondary task technique capacity is measured by reaction time to the secondary task.
Capacity theory of attention argues the number of tasks which can be performed simultaneously depends on the amount of capacity required by each task.
In proactive interference previously learned material interferes with recall of more recently learned material
retroactive interference is memory loss for previously learned information due to interference by recently learned information.
Harlow’s research on learning sets entailed monkeys choosing between pairs of objects differing physically.
A language universal a language feature true of all language users.
Holophrases The single-word utterances of infants
For Chomsky, the language acquisition device is an innate structure that predisposes humans to learning language.
self-efficacy Bandura’s term to refer to the extent to which a person believes he or she can accomplish some behavioral task to produce desirable consequences.
nonsense syllables Ebbinghaus, his stimulus materials in memory experiments because they contained no inherent meaning for him.
capacity of the short-term store George Miller, demonstrated capcity to be approximately 7 items of information.
Optimal conditioning generally is found when the CS slightly precedes the US
The Law of Effect states that responses which are followed by rewards increase in strength.
trial and error Thorndike, showed that animals seem to learn by trial and error
extinction If a conditioned stimulus is presented by itself following conditioning, the response previously conditioned to it will decrease in strength.
Example of Discrimination If stimulus A is followed by an unconditioned stimulus during training but stimulus B is not, subjects typically will learn to respond more to stimulus A.
Example of generalization If a response is conditioned to a tone of 100OHz, it probably will occur also to a tone of 110OHz.
CER procedure After exposing a rat to pairings of a tone with shock, an experimenter presents the tone for 3 minutes while the rat is pressing a bar to obtain food.
example of backward conditioning Food is presented for three seconds, followed by a two-second tone.
example of trace conditioning A CS is presented for 2 seconds, and 5 seconds after its termination food is
Elaborative processing memory for material is improved the more elaborately it is processed.
Rehearsal represents a trade-off in short-term memory because it extends the trace life but also requires capacity.
Learning may be defined as a change in the capacity for behavior due to experience
unconditioned response Salivation response to food in the mouth
unconditioned response An innate, reliable response to a stimulus
conditioned stimulus An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit responding as a result of conditioning
conditioned response (CR) After a dog is exposed to pairings of a tone with food, it begins to salivate to the tone.
second-order conditioning If a tone is paired with a light and then the light is paired with food, the tone will come to elicit salivation.
puzzle box Thorndike’s apparatus used in research with cats
Created by: l_fren