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Ch 7 & 8 Rad Protect

Early/Late Radiation effects on organ systems

QuestionAnswer
Somatic & Genetic Damage Factors (4) 1. The quanitity of ionizing radiation to which the subject is exposed 2.The ability of ionizing radiation to cause ionization of human tissue 3.The amount of body area exposed 4.The specific body part exposed
Somatic Effects When the organisms exposed to radiation suffer biological damage
Non-stochastic effects AKA, deterministic effects; If the effects are cell killing and directly related to the dose; appear within min, hrs, days or wks after exposure
Stochastic effects AKA, probabilistic; Late effects that are mutational or randomly occurring
Early somatic effects (11) Nausea, fatigue, erythema, epilation (bald), blood disorder, intestinal disorders, dever, dry and most desquamation, depressed sperm count, temp/permanent sterility, CNS injury
Acute Radiation Syndrome ARS or radiation sickness. Requires large, whole body exposure
3 Dose related syndroms, in order from early to late effects 1. Hematopoietic 2.Gastrointestinal 3.Cerebrovascular
Pondromal Stage of ARS Occurs within hours after a whole body absorbed dose of 1Gy or more is recieved
Pondromal stage symptoms Nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, fatigue, leukopenia
Latent stage dose 1-100Gy
Hematopoietic Stage (dose, Average Survival, Symptoms) 1-10Gy; 6-8wks; (symptoms from previous)decreased in # of red & white blood cells & platlets in circulating blood, hemorrhage, infection
GI stage (dose, average survival, symptoms) 6-10Gy; 3-10days; (symptoms from previous) Loss of appetite, lathargy, electrolytic imblanace & emaciation
Cerebrovascular stage (dose, average survival, symptoms) 5+Gy; Several hours to 3 days; (symptoms from previous) excessive nervousness, confusion, lack of coordination, LOC, disorientation, shock, agitation alernating with stupor, edema,loss of equilibrium, meningitis, prostation, respiratory distress, coma
Late somatic effects Appear months or years following exposure, do not have a threshold, occur in an arbitrary or probabilistic manner, late non-stochastic deterministic effects
Late nonstochastic somatic effects (6) Cataract formation, fibrosis, organ atrophy, loss of parenchymal cells, reduced fertility, sterility
Late stochastic somatic effects (2) Cancer, embryologic effects
3 major types of late somatic effects Carcinogenesis-> stochastic Cataractogenesis->non-stochastic Embryologic effects->stochastic
Embryologic effects Most vulnerable stage->1st trimester b/c of large # of stem cells. Excess doses 200mSv can result in death or congenital abnormalities. .05-.15Gy during preimplantation stage will cause death
Genetic effects The biological effects of ionizing radiation on future generations; result of radiation-induced damage to the DNA of the sperm or ova of the adult
Doubling dose concept The radiation dose that causes the # of spontaneous mutations to occur in a givem generation to increase to 2x their original number. was determined from hiroshima & Nag attacks- aprox 156rem
Created by: rachelbeatty4