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PSY 201: Chapter 6

Memory

QuestionAnswer
Memory The ability to store and retrieve information over time
Encoding The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into and enduring memory
Storage The process of maintaining information in memory over time
Retrieval The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
Elaborative encoding The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that's already in memory
Visual imagery encoding The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures
Organizational encoding The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items
Sensory memory A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
Iconic memory A fast-decaying store of visual information
Echoic memory A fast-decaying store of auditory information
Short-term memory A type of storage that holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
Rehearsal The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
Chunking Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory
Working memory Active maintenance of information in short-term storage
Long-term memory A type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years
Anterograde amnesia The inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store
Retrograde amnesia The inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation
Consolidation The process by which memories become stable in the brain
Reconsolidation Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again
Long-term potentiation (LTP) A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier
NMDA receptor A receptor site on the hippocampus that influences the flow of information between neurons by controlling the initiation of long-term potentiation
Retrieval cue External information that helps bring stored information to mind
Encoding specificity principle The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded
State-dependent retrieval The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
Transfer-appropriate processing The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match
Retrieval-induced forgetting A process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items
Explicit memory The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
Implicit memory The influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection
Procedural memory The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
Priming An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
Semantic memory A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
Episodic memory The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
Transcience Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
Retroactive interference Situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier
Proactive interference Situations in which information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later
Absentmindedness A lapse in attention that results in memory failure
Prospective memory Remembering to do things in the future
Blocking A failure to retrieve information that's available in memory even though you are trying to produce it
Memory misattribution Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source
Source memory Recall of when, where, and how information was acquired
False recognition A feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before
Suggestibility The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
Bias The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences
Persistence The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
Flashbulb memories Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events
Created by: 100000033006215