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PSY 201: Chapter 5

Consciousness

QuestionAnswer
Consciousness A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
Phenomenology How things seem to the conscious person
Problem of other minds The fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others
Mind/body problem The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and the body
Dichotic listening A task in which people wearing headphones hear different messages presented to each ear
Cocktail party phenomenon A phenomenon in which people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby
Minimal consciousness A low-level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior
Full consciousness Consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state
Self-consciousness A distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object
Mental control The attempt to change conscious states of mind
Thought suppression The conscious avoidance of a thought
Rebound effect of thought suppression The tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression
Ironic processes of mental control Mental processes that can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can itself produce them
Dynamic unconscious An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces
Repression A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness
Cognitive unconscious The mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person
Subliminal perception A thought or behavior that's influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
Altered states of consciousness Forms of experience that depart from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind
Circadian rhythm A naturally occurring 24-hour cycle
REM sleep A stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity
Electrooculograph (EOG) An instrument that measures eye movements
Insomnia Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep
Sleep apnea A disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep
Somnambulism (aka sleepwalking) Occurs when the person arises and walks around while asleep
Narcolepsy A disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities
Sleep paralysis The experience of waking up unable to move
Night terrors Abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal
Manifest content A dream's apparent topic or superficial meaning
Latent content A dream's true underlying meaning
Activation-synthesis model The theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep
Psychoactive drug A chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain's chemical message system
Drug tolerance The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect
Depressants Substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system
Expectancy theory The idea that alcohol effects can be produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations
Balanced placebo design A study design in which behavior's observed following the presence or absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence of absence of a placebo stimulus
Alcohol myopia A condition that results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations
Stimulants Substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels
Narcotics or opiates Highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain
Hallucinogens Drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations
Marijuana The leaves and buds of the hemp plant
Harm reduction approach A response to high-risk behaviors that focuses on reducing the harm such behaviors have on people's lives
Hypnosis An altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one's actions are occurring voluntarily
Posthypnotic amnesia The failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget
Hypnotic analgesia The reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis
Meditation The practice of intentional contemplation
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