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Child Development 3

Study Guide 3

QuestionAnswer
1. What two important human interests must be reconciled during social development?
2. Define personality, socialization, norms and roles.
3. How is the social role associated with a job different from the technical knowledge or skill necessary to perform a job?
4. How is gender different form sex?
5. What does it mean to say that male and female genders are independent dimensions as opposed to mutually exclusive values of a single dimension?
6. How do we know that hormonal regulation can influence sexual preferences?
7. Identify organizational and activational hormonal effects associated with masculinizing female rats.
8. Identify evidence that human sexual orientation may be influenced by biology.
9. Identify 4 principles of social learning.
10. Explain why gendered behavior is liable to social learning?
11. Explain how operant conditioning might gendered behavior?
12. Explain how a gender schema might influence the development of gendered behavior.
13. Explain why violent behavior portrayed in TV might be liable to social learning.
14. What is the catharsis theory of how TV violence might influence the aggressive tendencies of viewers?
15. What does the available evidence suggest about TV as a catharsis for violent or aggressive behavior?
16. What influence did the introduction of TV to a remote Canadian town have on the playground aggression of children in that town?
17. Why might scenes depicted on TV be particularly disturbing to early children?
18. Explain why TV viewing (aside from providing a model for violent behavior) might negatively influence children and adults.
19. Define punishment as an operant behavior-outcome relationship.
20. What is the relationship between punishment and children’s aggression?
21. Provide a biological explanation for the relationship identified in item 20.
22. Provide a social learning explanation for the relationship identified in item 20.
23. Explain how the experience of punishment may influence children’s cognitive attributions and aggression.
24. Identify 7 unintended negative consequences of using punishment to control children’s behavior.
25. Identify the 4 operant behavior outcomes relationships and the effects that these contingencies have on behavior.
26. What is necessary before effectively applying operant extinction to eliminate behavior?
27. Identify an important insight that can be gained from how punishment is studied in the operant laboratory.
28. Provide three alternatives to punishment as a means for discouraging an undesired behavior.
29. Define parental demandingness and responsiveness.
30. Define four categories of parenting with the two dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness.
31. Describe the characteristics of children that Diana Baumrind found to be associated with authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parents.
32. What are the characteristics of children associated with neglectful parenting.
33. Identify a cultural context in which the characteristics of children associated with authoritative parenting my not be desirable.
34. Identify two changes in family structure that has occurred in the last 30 years to make pre-school increasingly necessary.
35. Identify six curricular areas that a high quality preschool should address.
36. Identify the age appropriate way to deliver curricular material to children of preschool age.
37. Identify two positive effects that have been associated with children who have attended high quality preschool.
38. Identify 6 positive effects that have been associated with at-risk children who attended high quality compensatory preschool (i.e., Headstart).
39. Describe how the transition to middle childhood effects changes in physical strength and coordination, cognitive capacity, social functioning and language.
40. In what region of the brain is myelination most concentrated during middle childhood.
41. Explain why myelination of the brain might contribute to increased working memory capacity in middle childhood.
42. Describe how the dominant awake and relaxed EEG pattern changes from early to middle childhood.
43. How does the coherence of EEG frequencies measured from different cortical regions change from early to middle childhood.
44. How are changes in dominant EEG frequency and EEG coherence associated with performance on Piagetian conservation problems.
45. Identify the cognitive characteristics of the concrete operational thinker.
46. Identify a major limitation on the logical reasoning of the concrete operational thinker.
47. Identify three logical justifications that middle children provide to justify their correct answers on Piagetian conservation problems.
48. How does categorical reasoning change during middle childhood?
49. How might middle childhood capacities for categorical reasoning affect the capacity of working memory?
50. How do the creative expression of children change form kindergarten to grade school?
51. Identify the kind of thinking that is stressed in kindergarten and grade school that might account for the change identified in item 22.
52. Identify and define two dimensions of creativity that are measured in tests of creativity.
53. What do twin studies suggest about the heritability of creativity?
54. Identify the characteristics of parents that are associated with creative children.
55. How much time do middle children spend in the company of peers in comparison to early children?
56. At what stage of development do true friendships first emerge?
57. How did Piaget characterize the moral thinking of early children?
58. How did Piaget characterize the changes in moral thinking that emerge during middle childhood?
59. Define heteronomous and autonomous moral thinking.
60. Identify two variables that influence an individuals social status in middle childhood.
61. Define dominance.
62. How is dominance attained?
63. Identify two variables that influence social acceptance.
64. Identify two methods that are used to measure social status in middle childhood.
65. What is a map of the social relationships between a group of individuals called?
66. Identify 5 characteristics associated with social competence.
67. Define popular, rejected, neglected, controversial and average status children in terms of dimensions of aggression and social competence.
68. Identify the forms of aggression that characterize rejected aggressive and withdrawn children.
69. What form of aggression is more commonly associated with boys than with girls?
70. Define relational, instrumental, hostile and reactive forms of aggression.
71. Explain the cascade effect and relate the cascade effect to the concept of developmental primacy.
72. What are the characteristics of individuals that influence friendship selection?
73. Identify three developmental functions of friendships in middle childhood.
74. Describe evidence that suggests that peer relationships in middle childhood influence the development of social cognitive capacities.
75. What is the function of the adolescent stage of development?
76. How is the duration of the adolescent stage influenced by societal/cultural differences in the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to function as an independent adult?
77. Identify 5 characteristics associated with the adolescent transition.
78. To what does the term puberty refer?
79. What regulates the emergence of puberty?
80. What are secondary sexual characteristics?
81. Distinguish organizational and activational hormonal effects associated with the emergence of sexual maturity.
82. How is brain development during early adolescence similar to and different from that of infancy?
83. Where is brain development concentrated during adolescence?
84. What evidence suggests that the brain becomes less plastic and more specialized in regional function during adolescence?
85. Identify the cognitive characteristics for formal operational thought.
86. How is adolescent idealism and the identity crisis related to an important cognitive capacity that emerges in adolescence?
87. Why is systematic though associated with capacities for reasoning in the abstract or hypothetical?
88. Identify two procedures that Piaget used to identify the emergence of formal operational thinking.
89. What are two major weaknesses of the Piagetian tests of formal operational thinking?
90. What is the relationship between experience on formal operations problems and performance on formal operational problems?
91. How does experience on formal operational problems influence the performance middle children verses adolescents on formal operational problems?
92. How does experience in applying formal operational thinking to one domain of knowledge generalize to applying formal operational thought to very different knowledge domains?
93. Explain the evidence on the emergence of formal operational thinking both supports and conflicts with Paiget’s ideas about the development of formal operations.
94. How did Eric Erickson characterize the adolescent identity crisis?
95. Are changes in identity and social role adoption restricted to adolescence, explain?
96. How does peer orientation change from middle childhood to adolescence?
97. Identify three characteristic that distinguish adolescent peer relationships from those in middle childhood.
98. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the social support that adolescents receive from peers?
99. Contrast the term “peer pressure” with the course theme that development is a process in which the developing individual plays an active role in the own development.
100. What is the relationship between adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and future development?
101. Identify the two expressions of adolescent egocentrism identified by David Elkind?
102. How have levels of US adolescent sexual activity changed since the 1960s?
103. How do levels of US adolescent sexual activity compare with levels of adolescent sexual activity in other western industrial nations?
104. How do levels of US adolescent births and abortions compare with other western industrial nations?
105. What might account the relatively high levels of adolescent births and abortions in the US?
106. Identify an essential conflict that exists in the social status of the adolescent in western industrial societies.
107. How are levels of adolescent peer verses parental orientation associated with deviance?
108.What parenting style is associated with adolescents who relatively more parentally oriented?
109.What evidence supports the view that experiences in early childhood might effect social functioning in adolescence and beyond?
Created by: hillkm