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Psychology Ch. 8

Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Mental activity involved in understanding, processing, and communication information Cognition
Paying attention to information, mentally representing it, reasoning about it, and making decisions about it Thinking
A mental category that is used to class together objects, relations, events, abstractions, ideas, or qualities that have common properties Concept
A concept of a category of objects or events that serves as a good example of the category Prototype
A specific example Exemplar
A systematic procedure for solving a problem that works invariably when it is correctly applied Algorithm
An algorithm for solving problems in which each possible solution is tested according to a particular set of rules Systematic Random Search
Rules of thumb that help us simplify and solve problems Heuristics
A heuristic device in which we try to solve a problem by evaluating the difference between the current situation and the goal Means-End Analysis
An internal image or visual representation that is used in thinking and memory Mental Image
The tendency to respond to a new problem with an approach that was successfully used with similar problems Mental Set
In Gestalt psychology, a sudden perception of relationships among elements of the mentally represented elements of a problem that permits its solution Insight
In problem solving, a process that may sometimes occur when we stand back from a frustrating problem for a while and the solution "suddenly" appears Incubation
The tendency to view an object in terms of its name or familiar usage Functional Fixedness
A decision-making heuristic in which people make judgments about samples according to the populations they appear to represent Representativeness Heuristic
A decision-making heuristic in which our estimates of frequency or probability of events are based on how easy it is to find examples Availability Heuristic
A decision-making heuristic in which a presumption or first estimate serves as a cognitive anchor; as we receive additional information, we make adjustments but tend to remain in the proximity of the anchor Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
The influence of wording, or the context in which information is presented, on decision making Framing Effect
Having to do with the meanings of words and symbols Semantic
The communication of information by means of symbols arranged according to rules of grammar Language
Meaning; the quality of language in which words are used as symbols for objects, events, or ideas Semanticity
The capacity to combine words into original sentences Infinite Creativity
The quality of language that permits one to communicate information about objects and events in another time and place Displacement
The view that language structures the way we view the world Linguistic-Relativity Hypothesis
A single word used to express complex meanings Holophrase
The rules for forming grammatical phrases and sentences in a language Syntax
The application of regular grammatical rules for forming inflections (e.g., past tense and plurals) to irregular verbs and nouns Overregularization
The view that language learning involves an interaction between environmental factors and an inborn tendency to acquire language Psycholinguistic Theory
In psycholinguistic theory, neural "prewiring" that facilitates the child's learning of grammar; referred to by Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
A general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience Intelligence
Spearman's symbol for general intelligence, which he believed underlay more specific abilities g
Spearman's symbol for specific factors, which he believed accounted for individual abilities s
A statistical technique that allows researchers to determine the relationships among large number of items, such as test items Factor Analysis
According to Thurstone, the basic abilities that make up intelligence Primary Mental Abilities
Gardner's view that there are several intelligences, not just one Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Sternberg's theory that intelligence has three prongs, consisting of analytical, creative, and practical intelligence ("street smarts") Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
The ability to generate novel and useful solutions to problems Creativity
A thought process that narrows in on the single best solution to a problem Convergent Thinking
A thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to problems Divergent Thinking
The accumulated months of credit that a person earns on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Mental Age (MA)
Originally, a ratio obtained by dividing a child's score (or mental age) on an intelligence test by chronological age; generally, a score on an intelligence test Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
The consistency of a method of measurements, as, for example, shown by obtaining similar scores on different testing occasions Reliability
The extent to which a method of measurement measures what it is supposed to measure, as, for example, shown by the extent to which test scores predict or are related to an external standard; w/ intelligence may include academic performance Validity
A factor that provides an advantage for test takers from certain cultural backgrounds, such as using test items that are based on middle-class culture in the United States Cultural Bias
The degree to which the variations in a trait from one person to another can be attributed to, or explained by, genetic factors Heritability
Created by: Vanity
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