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Ch 6 Rad 150

The X-Ray Tube

The filament is located on the ____ side and "boils off" _____. cathode; electrons
The filament is made of which material and why? thoriated tungsten - high melting point - 3400 degrees C.
The smaller the focal spot the ____ the effective beam. smaller
The large surface area on a rotating anode is made to dissipate ____. heat
A small focal spot will give an image better ____ _____. spatial resolution
The large focal spot is used when large body parts are imaged and with techniques that produce ____. high heat
What is the ratio for heat and x-ray production? heat 99% - xray 1%
What are three components located on the anode side? anode, rotor and stators
During the anode heel effect more radiation is absorbed on the ____ side. anode
What is an example of the anode heel effect? x-ray of the foot
The metal casing around the tube protects against ___ and ____ and also dissipates ___. electric shock, radiation leakage; heat
Thermionic emission is the boiling off of ____ from the filament. electrons
During the ____ ____ ___, subsequent electrons can not be emitted by the filament because of electrostatic repulsion. space charge effect
Exceeding the ___ ___ will result in the space charge effect. saturation point (overproduction of e-)
Voltage is also known as ___ _____. potential difference.
To produce photons, a ____ is needed to keep x-ray efficiency at 1%. vacuum
____, ____, and ____ can be used to make filaments. Tungsten, molybdenum and rhodium
Tube warm-up is important to prevent the ___ from breaking. anode
During off-focus radiation, electrons miss the ____ and land on different areas of the target. focal spot
What are the heat units (HU)? single - 1; 3 phase/6 pulse - 1.35; 3 phase/12 pulse and HF - 1.4
The ___ focal spot size are the e- that hit the patient after it interacts with the target. effective
The ___ focal spot size are the electrons hitting the anode target. actual
The ___ ___ is the actual x-ray source. focal spot
The ___ ___ principle results in an effective focal spot size much less than the actual focal spot size. line-focus
What are the primary components of the tube? glass envelope, cathode, anode and tube housing
The focusing cup is made of ____. nickel (negatively charged)
The smaller the target angle, the ____ the effective focal spot size. smaller
____ causes tube failure, glass cracking and lose of vacuum. Arcing
Vaporized tungsten will cause photons to be ____. attenuated
External components of the tube include: housing, glass envelope and induction motor.
Internal structures of the tube include: anode and cathode
What kind of chart gives the amount of time needed for the anode to cool down? Anode cooling chart
Protective housing reduces level of rad leakage to less than ____ mR/hour @ __ m. 100;1
When x-rays are produced, they are emitted ____. isotropically
The tube window contributes to ____ filtration. inherent
The longer the exposure, the more ___ that is produced. heat
Which chart determines safe and unsafe techniques? tube rating chart
Current in each stator winding induces a magnetic field that surrounds the ____. rotor
The rotating ____ is powered by an electromagnetic induction motor. anode
The glass thickness that surrounds the window is ____ al/eq .5 mm