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Lifespan Psy Ch 1

QuestionAnswer
biopsychosocial framework a useful way to organize the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human development
cohort effects problem with cross-sectional designs in which differences between age groups (cohorts) may result as easily from environmental events as from developmental processess
competence a person's abilities
continuity-discontinuity issue whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)
correlation coefficient an expression of the strenght and direction of a relation between two variables
correlational study investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
cross-sectional study study in which developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages.
dependent variable the behavior being observed
ecological theory theory based on idea that human development is insparable from the environmental contexts in which a person develops
environmental press demands put on people by the environment
epignetic principle in Erikson's theory, the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own special period of particular importance
exosystem social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development
experiment a systematic way of manipulating the key factor(s) that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior
human development the multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time
imitation or observational learning learning that occurs by simply watching how others behave
independent variable the factor being manipulated
information-processing theory theory proposing that human cognition consists of menal hardware and mental software
life-course perspective description of how various generations experience the biological, psychological and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts
life-span perspective view that human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework
logitudinal study longitudinal study research design in which the same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their lives
macrosystem the cultures subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem and exosystem are embedded
mesosystem provides connections across microsystems
meta-analysis a tool that enables researches to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
microsystem the people and objects in an individual's immediate environment
naturalistic observation technique in which people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
nature–nurture issue the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences (nature) and experiential or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are
neuroscience the study of the brain and nervous system, especially in terms of brain-behavior relationships
operant conditioning learning paradigm in which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future
populations broad groups of people that are of interest to researchers
psychodynamic theories theories proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages
psychosocial theory Erikson’s proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands
punishment a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
qualitative research method that involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it
reinforcement a consequence that increase the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
reliability extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of a characteristic
sample a subset of the population
selective optimization with compensation (SOC) model model in which three processes (selection, optimization, and compensation) form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging
self-efficacy people’s beliefs about their own abilities and talents
self-reports people’s answers to questions about the topic of interest
sequential design developmental research design based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
structured observations technique in which a researcher creates a setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest
systematic observation watching people and carefully recording what they do or say
theory an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
universal versus context-specific development issue whether there is just one path of development or several paths
validity extent to which a measure actually assesses what researchers think it does
Created by: astarkey18