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genetics for hp 3

3rd exam

Chromosome Mutation can be because of numerical chromosomal abnormalities, which affects the number of chromosome in the cell (e.g. monosomy, trisomy, polysomy, etc) structural, which affects the structure of individual chromosomes such as deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations.
Gene Mutation Affects individual genes In a dominant mutation, the phenotype is expressed even when there is only one mutant allele. In a recessive mutation, both alleles must be present to have any effect on the phenotype.
Genetic Polymorphism The co-existence of many forms of DNA sequences (wild type sequence of a gene) at a locus in a population.
Population Genetics It is the quantitative study of the distribution of genetic variation in populations and of how the frequencies of genes and genotypes are maintained or change.
Population Genetics is applicable if the population is large and matings are random Individuals with all genotypes are equally capable of reproducing and passing on their genes
triplet expansion is the mutation that occurs because of amplification of triplet nucleotide repeat sequence during sex cell reproduction
Population Genetics is not applicable if there is cosanguinity&Inbreeding or Mutation and selection
The shorter the distance between two genes on the same chromosome, the smaller the probability of a crossover.
homeobox genes HOX genes encode for a group of 60-amino-acid- proteins called transcription factors that binds to DNA. In doing so, they control cell differentiation (through gene regulation) and therefore formation of body structures during embryonic development.
Morphogens chemicals that induce,control fate of the cell during development(or morphogenesis), coordinate cellular growth and patterns
Created by: 1111770042