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Chapter seventeen

QuestionAnswer
Radiographic examination of the mammary gland or breast is called? mammography
In 1992 the american cancer society recommended that women over the age of ______ should have a screening mammogram preformed. 40
The MQSA which went into effect on October 1, _____ was passed to ensure high-quality mammography service requiring certification by the secretary of the DHHS. 1994
There are over ____ documented cases of breast cancer worldwide. 1 million
Men have _____ % chance of developing breast cancer as compared with women. 1&2
Once a breast cancer tumor has reached a size of ______ cm, it has often metastasized. 2
As stated in the textbook, breast cancer accounts for _____ of all new cancers detected in women. 32%
In canada, mammography guidelines are set by the canadian association of radiologist
Which of the following mammography facilities are exempt from MQSA standards? VA facilities
The junction of the inferior part of the breast with the anterior chest wall is called the immflamatory folds
The pigmented area surrounding the nipple is the? Areola
Breast tissue extending into the axilla is called the tail of the breast, or the Axillary Prolongation
In the average female breast, the _____ diameter is usally greater mediolateral
Using the clock localization system, 5 oclock on the right breast would be in what quadrant? LIQ
Based on the clock system method, a suspicious mass at 2 o'clock on the right breast would be at _____ o'clock if it were in a similar position on the left breast 10
List the 6 questions that should be included in the patients history taking before a mammogram: number of pregnacies / are u pregnet is there family history of cancer medication taking previous breast surgery had previous mammogram reason for exam
Skin tattoos on the breast may produce an artifact on the image. true
the apex of the breast is much thicker and contains denser tissue than the base. false
The idea kV for mammography is between 23 and 28 kV
Name the target material commonly used in mammography xray tubes molybdenum
The focal spot size on a dedicated mammography unit is usually between 0.1 and 0.3 mm
Typically, compression applied to the breast is 25 to 45 lbs of pressure.
List the 6 benefits of applying breast compression during mammography: Decrease thickness of breast brings breast closer to IR decrease dose and scatter decrease motion and unshapness increase contrast separates breast structures
The average required mAs range in mammography when using 25kV to 28kV is : 75 to 85
what is the 3 part hallmark of good film-screen mammography: Fine detail edge sharpness soft tissue visibility
Grids and AEC are used in most mammograms. true
Automatic exposure control should not be used with breast implants . true
Magnification is preformed during mammography primarily to magnify specific regions of interest
what is the average mean glandular dose for projections of the breast? 130 to 150 mrad
List 4 advantages of computed radiographic mammography over conventional film-screen mammography: lower operating cost can send images to remote locations less storage space required image manipulation
what is the name of the device that captures the images with direct digital mammography? flat panel device
digital mammography can now match the overall spatial resolution produced with film screen systems. False
studies have shown that using computer aided detection(CAD) as a second reader to interpret screening mammograms improves the cancer detection rate by as much as 15%
what type of lesion is best diagnosed with sonography of the breast? Distinguishing a cyst from a solid mass
Which imaging modality is most effective in diagnosing problems related to breast implants? MRI
List 2 advantages of digital mammography over conventional film-screen system: mamography images can be digaitally enhanced digitsl mammography can be sent to remote locations .
a nuclear medicine procedure called mammoscintigraphy uses which radionuclide? sestamibi
A second type of nuclear medicine procedure called sentinel node studies is preformed to: Detect malignant involvment of a lymph node surrounding the breast
What type of radionuclide is often used with sential node studies? sulfur colloid
PET studies of the breast can detect early cancerous cells by measuring the rate of Sugar Metabolism
List 2 major disadvantages of using PET as a breast screening tool: cost Radiation to the patient
MRI of the breast provides better diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as compared with ultrsound and conventional mammography. True
MRI is less effective than conventional mammography in detecting lesions in the breast containing implants. False
List 2 primary disadvantages in using MRI to study the breast high false, positive rate high cost
the most common benign tumor of the breast is Fibroadenoma
the most commmon form of breast cancer is: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
Which of the following breast lesions has well-defined margins? Fibroadenoma
Gynecomastia primarily involves the male breast. true
what are the two basic projections preformed for screening mammography? Craniocaudal Mediolateral oblique
what surface landmark determines the correct height for placement of the image receptor for the craniocaudad projection? Inframammary Fold
Anatomic side markers and patients identifacation information nedd to be placed near the _______ side of the breast Axillary
in the craniocaudad projection, what structure must be in profile? nipple
in the craniocaudad projection, the head should be should be turned _____ the side being radiographed away from
which basic projection taken during a screening mammography will demonstrate more of the pectoral muscle? MLO
How much CR/IR angulation is used for an average size breast for the MLO projection? 45 vertical
the desired patient position for the MLO projection is seated. False
Which special projection is usually requested when a lesion is seen on the MLO but not on the craniocaudal projection? XCCL
In both the craniocaudad and the mediolateral projections, the central ray is generally directed to the _____ of the breast. base
Which projection will most effectively show the axillary aspect of the breast? XCCL
How much is the CR/IR angled from vertical for the mediolateral, true lateral projection? 90 degrees
It is important for all skin folds to be smoothed out and all wrinkles and pockets of air removed on each projection for the breast. True
Since the base of the breast is well shown on the craniocaudad projection, this area does not need to be shown on the mediolateral oblique projection. False
The axillary aspect of the breast is usually well visualized on the craniocaudad projection. False
Mammography is usually done in the standing position. True
Because of a short exposure time, the patient does not need to be completely motion less during the exposure. Fale
Use of AEC often results in an uderexposed image with breast implants. False
In the craniocaudad projection, the chest wall must be pushed firmly against the image receptor. True
Standard CC and MLO projections should be performed on patients who have breast implants. True
Firm compression should not be used on patients with breast implants. True
The patient skin does for a true mediolateral projection is approximately 30% less than for the mediolateral oblique projection. False
Which technique (method) is commonly used for the breast with an implant? Ecklunel Technique
During the prcedure identified in question 52, what must be done to allow the anterior aspect of the breast to be compressed and properly visialized? Breast inplant needs to be pinched or pushed posterior out of exposure field.
If a lesion is too deep toward the chest wall and cannot be visuallized with a laterally exaggerated craniocaudal projection_______ projection should be performed Axillary Tail
Identify the correct positioning term or description for each of the following ACR abbreviations: MLO Medio Lateral Oblique
SIO Superolateral- info medio Oblique
AT Axillary Tail
RL Polled Lateral
LM Lateral Medial
XCCL Exaggented Cranio Caudal Lateral
LMO Lateral Medial Oblique
ID Implant displaced
Each year the United States, approximately____ million people have, or are at risk for developing, osteoporosis. 44
For osteoporosis to be visible on conventional radiographs, a loss of____to ___ of the trabecular bone must occur. 30%/50%
Cells responsible for new bone formation are called _____, and cells that help ro break down and remove old bone are _____. Osteoblast/Osteoclasts
Approximately by the age of________years, more bone is being removed than is being replaced by new bone formation. 35
The quantity or mass of bone measured in grams is the definition for________ Bone mineral Content
The purpose of bone densitometry is to: All of the above
Loss of magnesium and phosphorus from the bony cortex is the primary cause of osteoporosis. False
The following are not risk factors for osteoporosis Excessive Physical activity, Low sodium, niacin intake, High-fat diet, and Height greater than 6 feet (180cm)
Women on estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)ar at greater risk for acquiring osteoporotic fractures. False
Asian and Caucasian women have a greater risk for acquiring an osteoporotic fracture over other ethnic groups True
Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO)as a bone mineral density (BMD) value of: 2.5 standard deviations below the average for the young normal population.
A T-Score of no lower than-1.0 indicates: normal bone
which of the following drugs given to treat or prevent osteoporosis is classified as a stimulator for new bone growth? Parathyroid hormone
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is classified as an antiresorptive agent. True
List the three most common diagnostic equivalent system for bone densitometry: Dual energy X-rays, Quantutative Computed Tomography, Quiantitave Ultrasound
Which of the following is the method of choice for evaluation both trabecular and cortical bone? Quantitative computed tomography (QCT)
What is the chief benefits of using a high and low x-ray energy source with a DXA system? Demonstrate attenuation differences between bone and soft tissue
Patient dose delivered during bone densitometry procedures using an x-ray source is measured in what units of measurement? Microseiverts
A Z-score produced during a DXA scan compares the patient's bone density with that of: An average individual of the same sex and age.
QCT involves a scan taken between the vertebral levels of T12 to L5
QCT permits three-dimensional analysis of the scanned region of the spine. True
QCT produced less patients dose as compared with DXA False
QCT produced less patients dose as compared with DXA False
Quantitative computed tomography(QCT)provides bone mineral density measurement of ________and______ Tribecular/Cortical
Average patient dose with QCT is approximately _______ 30 USV
The most common anatomic site selected for QUS is the: OS calcis ( calcaneus)
Which of the following bone densitometry methods results in no radiation to the patient? QUS
Central or axial analysis using DXA or QCT includes bone density measurement of the: lumbar spine and hip
Severe scoliosis or kyphosis may result in less accurate results for bone densitometry procedures. True
The presence of a previous fracture or_______also prevents accurate measurement of the BMD of the affected anatomical site Metallic Prosthesis
If a patient had a previous fracture of the right hip, DXA should be performed on the right hip to gain a true measurement of BMD False
DXA of the hip requires the lower limb to be roated 15 to 20 internally True
Another term for precision in regard to the ability of DXA system to obtain repeated measurements on the same patient is Reproducibility
Which of the following factors has the greatest impact of precision during a DXA scan? Patient positioning
Typically, the accuracy of a DXA system is better than ______ 10%
Created by: jcm061582