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CH5 notes

What is learning? Process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior. Ex: academic learning, turning of a light in a rm, or dancing, etc
What is conditioning? basic form of learning, used for animals & humans, it’s the acquisition of specific patterns of behaviors in the presence of well defined stimuli.
What is classical conditioning? types of learning a responseby one stimulus to be elicited by a neutral stimulus by Ivan Pavlov, pair involuntary response (ex:salivation), that’s evolved by one stimulus with a different formerly neutral stimulus such (as a bell or touch of the leg)
What did Ivan Pavlov discover? classical conditioning
What are the 4 elements of classical conditioning? Unconditioned Stimulus (US), unconditioned response(UR), Conditioned Stimulus(CS), & Conditioned Response (CR)
element 1:What is the Unconditioned Stimulus(US)? stimulus invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way, Ex: food causes salvation
element 2: What is the Unconditioned Response (UR)? response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs, EX: the salivating when given food(US)
element 3: What is the Conditioned Stimulus (CS)? an originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus & eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone.
element 4: What is the Conditioned Response? After conditioning: the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented. When CS & US are paired frequently = CR
What is Desensitization Therapy? A conditioning technique to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation. Person learns to associate relaxation w/a stimulus that causes unnecessary or irrational fear or anxiety
What is orienting reflex? responses prompted by a sudden change in environment. Ex: babies look in direction of noise
What is Habituation? Unconsciously tuning out familiar stimuli
What is instinct? complex preprogrammed behavior ( salmon swim upstream to spawn)
What is imprinting? forming an attachment to the first moving object near them(only in animals)
what is stimulus,response, condition, and un? Stimulus: trigger(S) Response: reaction(R) Condition: train (C) “un”=not (U)
how does Classical Conditioning w/immune system work? immune depressing drugs are unconditioned stimuli (US) & are paired w/conditioned stimuli (CS) such as taste or smell. After pairing these two for a while the CS will suppress the immune system, it’s beneficial bc it doesn’t show any side effects.
What is Conditioned food(or taste)aversion? Conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pair of conditioned stimuli.
facts about taste aversions learned association btwn taste of a certain food & nausea & revulsion. Can after 1 bad experience For a rat the interval between eating food & falling ill can be up to 12 hrs. Rapid learning of taste illness combos increase the animals survival rate
Cancer patients and taste aversions humans develop food aversions on a variety of cues including taste, appearance, & smell.
Why do cancer patients develop strong taste aversions? • Due to nausea caused by chemotherapy drugs patients develop strong taste aversions for food eaten before/after injections of the chemotherapy • Even though the patient knows the food didn’t cause the nausea.
What are human phobias? irrational fears of specific things. Person develops fear after being associated w/a frightening stimulus. Ex: Watson & little Albert, “Flight or fight” kicks in to the person when associated.
what are 2 ways to relieve fears? Mary Cover Jones( she used classical conditioning w/candy). And Desensitization Therapy: learning to relax in the midst of fears Joseph Wolpe.
How does Desensitization therapy relieve fears? deep muscle relaxation techniques • Pairs techniques with fears • Eventually relax in midst of fear
Does CS always come first? Yes, ALWAYS comes first before the US or the Classical Conditioning won’t work. The CS has to come a few seconds prior to the US.
What is Lupus? an auto immune disorder that destroys the immune system, healthy organs, & tissue.
What is a good treatment for lupus? pair a CS (taste or smell that is made in a lab) w/the drug (US). Eventually the CS will suppress the immune system (CR).
Timing for Lupus Treatment: most effective when there is just a few seconds between the CS & the US. Delays conditioning when there is a long span between onset of CS & onset of US. Works but not as effective.
What is simultaneous conditoning? CS & US are presented at the same time= ineffective
What is Operant Behavior? behavior designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or to avoid something unpleasant operant or instrumental . They are not automatic reflexes caused by biologically important stimuli.
What is Operant or Instrumental Conditioning? type of learning in which behaviors are emitted( in presence of specific stimuli.) to earn rewards or avoid punishments.
What is a reinforcer? 2. Consequence follows behavior( such as freedom), this type of stimulus increases the likelihood of operant behavior being repeated
What is a punisher? a stimulus that follows a behavior & decreases the likelihood that that specific behavior will be repeated.
What is the Law of Effect? AKA principle of reinforcement, behavior that brings a satisfying effect (reinforcement) will likely be performed again, whereas behavior that brings a negative effect( punishment) will likely be suppressed.
What is a positive reinforcer? (PR): any event whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur.
What is a Negative Reinforcer? NR): any even whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur.
What does Positive and Negative have in common? result in the leaving of new behaviors or the strengthening of existing behaviors. Ex: child plays piano for praise (PR) or to escape hw= NR. End result = a higher incidence of piano playing
What is punishment? any event where presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur. It weakens behavior. Should be consistent not more severe.
What is avoidance training? Learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant such as punishment.
Operant conditioning is selective: some behaviors are easier to train than others, learning is less likely for any behavior that an animal isn’t likely to perform naturally.
What is superstitious behavior? whenever something we do is followed closely by a reinforcer we will tend to repeat the action, even if the reinforcement is not produced directly by what we have done
What is learned helplessness? Failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or averse stimulant that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli.
What is biofeedback? When operant conditioning is used to control certain biological functions such as bp, skin temp, & hr.
What is neurofeedback? a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves using an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity.
What does Bio&Neurofeedback have in common? both used to tract many medical problems including migraines, hypertension, asthma, irritable bowel conditions, & peptic ulcers.
What is Response acquisition/trial? the “building phase” of conditioning during which the likelihood or strength of the desired response increases. In classical conditioning, each pairing of the CS & US is called a trial.
What is intermittent pairing? Pairing the CS & the US on only some of the learning trials & presenting them separately on other trials is this. A procedure that reduces both the rate of learning & the final level of learning achieved.
What is Operant Conditioning(OC)? Behavior we want to teach is usually voluntary & is not inevitably triggered by outside events.
What is shaping? To reinforce successive approximations to the desired behavior,
What is the Skinner Box? named after B.F. Skinner who pioneered the OC. Used in OC on animals, which limits the available response & thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur.
What is Extinction? Decrease in the strength or frequency of a learned response bc of failure to continue pairing the CS & US or withholding of reinforcement(OC).
What is Spontaneous Recovery? The reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time.
What are two things that occur in the OC? Spontaneous recovery and extinction
What is the Renewal Effect? One way we overcome interference.
What is Stimulus Generalization? Transfer of a learned Ex: Little Albert learned to fear white furry rats, & not only that but it generalized to all kinds of white furry objects such as cotton balls, a fur coat, & even a Santa Clause mask. response to different but similar stimuli.
What is Stimulus Discrimination? Learning to respond to only one stimulus & to inhibit the response to all other stimuli.
What is response Generalization? Doesn’t occur in classical conditioning, occurs in OC, giving a response that is different from the response originally learned to that stimulus.
What is Higher-Order Conditioning? Conditioning based on previous learning
What are previous reinforcers? A reinforcer that’s rewarding in itself, such as food, water, & sex
What are secondary reinforcers? A reinforcer where learning is required, the value is acquired through association w/other primary or secondary reinforcers.
What is Contingency? A reliable “if –then”statement, relationship between two events such as a CS & a US.
What is blocking? Process whereby prior conditioning prevents conditioning(learning) to a second stimulus even when the two stimuli are presented simultaneously. Older learning prevents new learning.
What is schedule of Reinforcement? in OC, whenever partial reinforcement is given, SOR determines when & how often reinforcers will be delivered.
What is Partal Reinforcement? when an individual is rewarded on some, but not all trials. Ex: gambling
What is Fixed-Interval scheduleing? A reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time, since last reinforcement.
What is Variable-Interval Scheduleing? a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response, is reinforced after varying lengths of time following the last reinforcement.
What is fixed-ratio schedule? a reinforcement schedule in which correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses. After this schedule a brief pause after reinforcement is followed by a rapid & steady response rate until next reinforcement.
What is Variable-ratio schedule? a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented.
What is continuous reinforcement? Reinforcement every time the response is made. 1-1
What is cognitive learning?Who pioneered it? learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable. Edward Chace Tolman a pioneer of cognitive learning. His experiment was a rat maze, and it was very famous. He supports behaviorism.
What is Latent Learning? Learning that’s not immediately reflected in a behavior change. Ex: social learning
What is a Cognitive Map? A learned mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change.
What is insight? Learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem. “coming together” the epiphany.
Who pioneered insight? German Gestalt Psychologist Wolfgang Kohler, did experiments on insight w/chimpanzees.
What is a learning set/who started this? Harry Harlow, the ability to become more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved. Reduces creativity
What is the social learning theory/who started this? A view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience by the learner. Albert Bandura Bobo doll experiment is his study
What is observational or vicarious learning? learning by observing other people’s behavior. Vicarious reinforcement & vicarious punishment: Reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affect the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models.
Created by: BarackObama13