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Psychology Exam #2

Phychology Exam

A college degree is a good example of a(n) secondary reinforcer
Jordan expects people of Jewish decent to be rude. He thus treats them rudely which, in turn, causes them to be rude. This is an example of: self-fulfilling prophecy
Many people display severe negative emotional reactions to hypodermic needles, through exposure to injections in childhood. These reactions can be explained in terms of: classical conditioning
In classical conditioning, the time between presentation of the CS and the UCS is known as interstimulus interval
Learning to drive a car with a manual transmission involves acquiring a variety of complex simultaneous behaviors, such as shifting the gears, using the clutch, using the accelerator, and so on. Ex. Shaping
Joan got As on all of her intra-semester exams. As a consequence, she doesn't have to take the final exam. This is an example of: negative reinforcement
A family dog has learned that he cannot sit on the furniture when the father is home, but can otherwise. This is an example of a(n) discriminative stimulus
Generalized expectancies that people hold about whether or not their own behavior can bring about the incomes they seek describes the locus of control of reinforcement
Everything has been going wrong for Ted. No matter what he tries, it doesn't seem to make any difference. So, he's just given up trying. Ted's behavior is an example of learned helplessness
Fishing involves behavior that is difficult to extinguish. People who like fishing will spend hours "on the lake" without catching anything, before finally giving up in frustration. This is because fishing likely involves intermittent reinforcement
_____ schedules of reinforcement are most effective for learning new responses, and _____ schedules are most effective for maintaining a response once it is learned. Continuous, intermittent
Skinner proposed that superstitious behavior is best explained by: erroneous associations of behaviors and consequences
A child jumps at the sound of a balloon breaking. This response has not been taught to the child by their parents. We may assume this startle response is a(n) unconditioned response
A child is stung by a bee and 'learns' that small, flying insects inflict pain. The next time a fly is seen by the child in their bedroom they become highly agitated and upset. This example is most likely an example of stimulus generalization
As demonstrated in the rat experiment described within the text, there is an evolved tendency for organisms to learn some associations more readily than others. This is best explained by prepared learning
The belief that behavior is controlled by its consequences is a basic premises of operant conditioning
When Maria tried to take her sisters toy away from her, her mother slapped her “patties.” This is an example of: positive punishment
Which of the following will decrease the probability that a behavior will recur? positive punishment
If enough conditioning trials pass in which the operant is not followed by the consequence previously associated with it, the organism will experience extinction
Behavioral economists study _____ as they pertain to operant conditioning: cost-benefit analyses
The chapter discussion about scuba divers who remembered information learned underwater best when they were tested underwater demonstrated the encoding specificity principle
Working memory appears to be "orchestrated" by the ________, a region of the brain long known to be involved in most high-level cognitive functions. frontal lobe
Declarative memory can involve either ________ or ________ memory. semantic; episodic
Spacing study sessions increases the long-term retention of information (compared to all-night cramming) by: 100%
Many students report that it is much easier for them to recall information when they write an in-class test in the same room as they take the course than when they write the final examination in an examination hall or the gym. reason? retrieval cues
_________ enhances memory for emotionally-charged material: Adrenaline
Pieces of information along a network of associations are called ________. nodes
Research on forgetting shows that flashbulb memories fade with time and may be inaccurate
Dave tried to remember the lyrics of a new song, but kept confusing it with the lyrics of an older song with a similar title. This demonstrates: proactive interference.
Excessive use of alcohol especially interferes with ______ memory: prospective
It is generally accepted that the mind stores information. transforms information. retrieves information.
Sally wants to remember a phone number she just looked up. To help her retain this information in short term memory she should use maintenance rehearsal.
Memory that is expressed in behaviors rather than being consciously retrieved is known as implicit
When you go to the grocery store and you cannot remember what you were supposed to get, you start wandering up and down the aisle hoping for retrieval cues.
You are talking to your friend and suddenly he/she seems to be talking about something only somewhat related to what your conversation was about. This can most likely be explained by spreading activation theory
To help remember the order of the planets or the biological hierarchy of classification, people often make rhymes. They are really using mnemonic devices.
From my experience I have developed a set of organized knowledge about fire trucks. They are large, red, have sirens, drive fast, etc. What I have developed is a(n) _____ about fire trucks. schema
Even though John was involved in a serious accident over 6 months ago he feels that he could describe it in as much detail today as he did 20 minutes after the accident. This shows the effect of _________. flashbulb memories
The dentist sent you a reminder of your dental appointment, you cringed but wrote it in your schedule, and you still 'forgot' to go. Psychologists would say that you likely fell prey to motivated forgetting
Psychologists equate wisdom with: perspective
As proposed by Lewis Terman, which of the following formulas correctly expresses the intelligence quotient (IQ) as the relation between an individual's mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA)? IQ = (MA/CA) X 100
Giftedness is evidenced by an IQ that exceeds: 130
PKU is a highly heritable condition that can, however, be treated by dietary restrictions.
One strategy for assessing creativity is to measure ________ thinking. This type of thinking involves generating multiple possibilities from a given situation, such as describing all the possible uses of a coffee cup. divergent
IQ tests place individuals on a continuum of intelligence, but, in general, they do not explain what intelligence is.
Contestants on the television show, Jeopardy, compete primarily based on their: crystallized intelligence
Which of the following was NOT identified as a type of intelligence by Howard Gardner in his theory of multiple intelligences? reasoning
Gardner argues that intelligences can be isolated based on a number of criteria, including their neurological independence, the presence of savants, and their different courses of development.
To be classified as mentally retarded, a person must exhibit: an IQ below 70 and adaptive functioning deficits first noticed in childhood
Most cases of severe mental retardation reflect biological causes
Intelligence correlates with: quality of neural connections
IQ tests best predict: classroom success.
Attempting to identify groups of items in a test that correlate highly with one another in order to discover underlying skills or abilities is a trademark of psychometric approaches.
The two factor theory distinguishes a g factor from s factors. Who developed this theory? Spearman
Susan is 20 years older than her friend Barb. Because she has most likely experienced more in life and built a large store of knowledge, we can assume that Susan would likely score higher on crystallized intelligence.
Variables on which people differ, and which correlate with IQ and achievement include speed of processing. knowledge base. ability to learn and apply mental strategies.
John does extremely well in one area of his life – cooking, yet he is extremely limited in most other areas. A label that could be applied to John is savant
Identical twins, separated at birth, raised by separate families will show highest correlation with their identical twin.
This chapter discusses tennis champion Stan Smith, cartoonist Charles Schultz, author J. K. Rowling, and Walt Disney as being particularly high in: self efficacy
Culturally variable patterns of regulating and displaying emotion are called: display rules.
Self-actualization needs differ from other needs in Maslow's hierarchy in that they are not: deficiency needs.
The absorptive phase and fasting phase are the two phases of metabolism
Many dieters find that they can lose weight to a certain point, then it becomes extremely difficult.. Which of the following may explain this phenomenon? set-point theory
The final phase of the sexual response cycle is resolution
In recent research, homosexuality seems correlated with which of the following: left handedness
The Evolutionary Perspective predicts that distaste for condoms should be highest among which of the following? males
In metabolism, short term reserves are primarily stored ____ while long-term reserves are primarily stored ____. in the liver; under the skin and in the abdomen
The James-Lange theory of emotion sees the origins of emotion in the peripheral nervous system responses.
The notion that a cognitive interpretation of situational cues is crucial to emotional experience is central to which theory of emotions? Schachter-Singer
In research discussed in this chapter, in what context do people tend to eat significantly larger meals? when dining with large groups of people
The Thematic Apperception Test is used to study: unconscious motives.
Deprivation of basic needs that creates an unpleasant state of tension is paramount to: drive-reduction theories.
Primary drives include water
Self-determination theory suggests that people have which of the following innate needs? competence autonomy relatedness to others
Which of the following are considered basic needs, according to Maslow? physiological needs safety needs belongingness needs
Which of the following characterizes the correlation between obesity and socioeconomic class in the US Population? it is negative
Homeostasis literally means: standing still
Sexuality was not treated as a respectable area of scientific research until ____ published work. Kinsey's
The model of the cause of disease based on the balance of blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile is called the humoral theory of illness.
A modern theory of health and illness that incorporates the interaction of several variables is called the biopsychosocial model.
Obese people tend to have: obese parents, children, and pets
Which of the following is true about high-fear messages? They arouse attention but don't tend to change behavior
Which hormone is most implicated in obesity? Leptin
Perry induced vomiting on the morning of his SAT test so that his parents wouldn't have too high expectations of his performance. This is an example of: self-handicapping
During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome adrenaline and other hormones are released and the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
Richard Lazarus distinguishes three types of stress: harm or loss, threat, challenge.
Daily hassels tend to be mundane, but consequential stressors.
John Henryism is a coping style characterized by a tendency to work hard and cope actively despite difficult circumstances.
Which of the following describes the buffering hypotheses social support helps protect people from harmful effects of stress
Trephination was a procedure used to release the 'evil spirits' from within a person.
The beliefs one has that a particular behavior will produce a particular outcome and one's evaluation of those outcomes is known as attitude
Determining whether a person is overweight or obese is typically done by calculating the individuals body mass index
In the US, more people are treated for _______ than for all other health habits or conditions combined. obesity
Self-presentation is also known as impression management.
____________ is when an individual decides whether a situation is benign, stressful, or irrelevant. primary appraisal
On the Holmes rating scale of stressful events, which of the following would receive a higher score? marital separation
Which cells in the immune system are the primary target of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS? T-helper cells
The one factor within the type A personality that seems to be most related to heart disease is hostility
Created by: Justin_Smith_
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