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moral development changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong.
heteronomous morality the first stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, occurring at 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
autonomous morality the second stage of moral development in Piaget’s theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor’s inte
immanent justice Piaget’s concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately.
preconventional reasoning the lowest level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. The individual’s moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment.
individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange the second Kohlberg stage of moral development. At this stage, individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same.
conventional reasoning the second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards but they are the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society.
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity Kohlberg’s third stage of moral development. At this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgment.
social systems morality the fourth stage in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty.
postconventional reasoning the highest level in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. At this level, morality is completely internalized and not based on others’ standards.
social contract or utility and individual rights the fifth Kohlberg stage. At this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law.
universal ethical principles the sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights.
justice perspective a moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions.
care perspective the moral perspective of Carol Gilligan that views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communications, relationships with others, and concern for others.
social conventional reasoning thoughts about social consensus and convention, as opposed to moral reasoning that stresses ethical issues.
social cognitive theory of morality the theory that distinguishes between moral competence – the ability to produce moral behaviors – and moral performance – those behaviors in specific situations.
ego ideal the component of the superego that rewards the child by conveying a sense of pride and personal value when the child acts according to ideal standards approved by the parents.
conscience the component of the superego that punishes the child for behaviors disapproved of by parents by making the child feel guilty and worthless.
empathy reacting to another’s feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other’s feelings.
moral identity the aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives.
moral exemplars people who have lived exemplary lives. They have a moral personality, identity, character, and set of virtues that reflect moral excellence and commitment.
love withdrawal a discipline technique in which a parent withholds attention or love from the child.
power assertion a discipline technique in which a parent attempts to gain control over the child or the child’s resources.
induction a discipline technique in which a parent uses reason and explanation of the consequences for others of the child’s actions.
hidden curriculum the pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes schools.
character education a direct moral education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior or doing harm to themselves or others.
cognitive moral education education based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kohlberg’s theory has been the basis for many of the cognitive moral education approaches.
values clarification helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. Students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others’ values.
service learning a form of education that promotes social responsibility service to the community.
altruism an unselfish interest in helping another person
conduct disorder age inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, society’s norms, and the personal property rights of others.
juvenile delinquency refers to a great variety of behaviors, ranging form unacceptable behavior to status offenses to criminal acts.
index offenses criminal acts, whether they are committed by juveniles or adults. They include such acts as robbery, aggravated assault, rape, and homicide.
status offenses less serious acts (than index offenses). Status offenses include truancy, underage drinking, sexual promiscuity, and uncontrollability. They are performed by youth under a specific age, which make them juvenile offenses.
Created by: Jessica C