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Learning and Cog 8-9

Stasser's Learning and Cog Ch. 8-9 Terms

Conceptual behavior Behavior under the control of generalized or abstract stimulus properties rather than specific attributes
Wholist strategy Responding to all attributes of a conceptual class or category
Partist strategy Focusing on a single attribute of a conceptual class or category
Conjunctive concept A concept in which members must possess both of two separate attributes
Disjunctive concept A concept in which members must possess either one of two separate attributes
Superordinate level The most generic and encompassing level of a conceptual category
Basic level The most useful level of a concept, characterized by neither too much nor too little information
Subordinate level The most restrictive, specific level of a conceptual category
Prototype A member of a conceptual category exhibiting a collection of typical features or attributes
Exemplar A specific example or member of a larger category or conceptual class
Neural network model Cognitive theory suggesting that concepts consist of various excitatory connections between neurons or groups of neurons
Learning set Application of previously learned rules or responses to novel circumstances
Transposition effect Responding to a relationship between two stimuli rather than to discrete characteristics of either stimulus
Language A highly structured symbol system that allows for creative and meaningful communication between organisms
Motherese Speech patterns consisting of slow pronunciation, increased pitch, and exaggerated intonation, ordinarily used by adults when speaking to infants and young children
Holophrase A single word utterance ordinarily referring to important objects or events in an infant’s environment
Telegraphic Speech Short (2-3 word) utterances, usually consisting only of nouns and verbs, used by children from 1.5 to 2 years of age
Sensitive period Limited time period during which a developmental milestone can be most readily achieved
Imprinting Tendency of infants to develop rapid and strong attachments to a parental figure; most frequently seen in precocial birds
Psycholinguistics Branch of science historically devoted to understanding the properties of human language and the mechanisms responsible for language acquisition
Phoneme Smallest unit of speech sound
Morpheme Smallest meaningful unit of speech sound
Syntax Rules of a language that determine the ordering of words to make sentences
Semantics Meaning or interpretation given to the spoken or written word
Pragmatics Use of language in social contexts to bring about desired consequences
Language acquisition device (LAD) An evolved mechanism believed responsible for language acquisition in humans
Transformational grammer Process by which deep structures become expressed in novel and unlimited surface structures or sentences
Deep structure Intended meaning underlying an utterance or sentence
Surface structure syntactic arrangement of words in an utterance or sentence
Cognitive-functional linguistics Approach to language study that emphasizes longitudinal studies of language acquisition in children and the practical and functional issues that characterize the process
Mands Verbal operants occurring under specific states of deprivation or aversive stimulation
Echoic Verbal operant whose structural properties match those of the antecedent stimulus
Anthropomorphism Tendency to attribute humanlike characteristics to nonhuman animals
Created by: l_fren