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Unit 6 Terms

Learning

QuestionAnswer
Learning A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
Habituation Decreasing responsiveness with the repeated stimulation.
Associative Learning Learning that certain events occur together.
Behaviorism The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Classical Conditioning A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
Unconditioned Response In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Stimulus In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response.
Conditioned Response In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Acquisition In classical conditioning, the initial stage,when one links a neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditional response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Extinction The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Higher-Order Conditioning A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.
Generalization The tendency, once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Discrimination In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Learned Helplessness The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Respondent Behavior Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Operant Behavior Behavior that operates on the environment , producing consequences.
Shaping An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
Reinforcer In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Positive Reinforcement Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Negative Reinforcement Any stimulus that when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
Primary Reinforcer An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Partial Reinforcement Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Conditioned Reinforcer A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer.
Fixed Ratio In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Variable Ratio In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
Fixed-Interval In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Variable-Interval In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Law of Effect Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Discriminative Stimulus In operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement.
Punishment An event that decreases the behavior that follows.
Cognitive Map A mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
Latent learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
Observational Learning Learning by observation others. Also called social learning.
Modeling The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
Pro-Social Behavior Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
Intrinsic Motivation A desire to preform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
Extrinsic Motivation A desire to preform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Mirror Neurons Frontal Lobe neurons that fire when preforming certain actions or when observing another doing so.
Insight A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Aversion Therapy A type of behavior therapy designed to make a patient give up an undesirable habit by causing them to associate it with an unpleasant effect.
Systematic Desensitization A type of exposure therapy to that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
Created by: APPsychology