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patient care test 2

patient care 2

What are the signs of shock? - restlessness - increase in pulse rate -pallor accompanied by weakness or change in thinking ability -cool, clammy skin -fall in BP
What is anaphylaxis? allergic shock
what is cardiogenic shock? results from cardiac failure or interference with heart function (pulmonary embolus or anesthesia may initiate this)
what is neurogenic shock? failure of arterial resistance causing pooling of blood in peripheral vessels
what is septic shock? when a massive infection produces toxins that increase capillary permeability + vasodilation causing BP to drop sharply
what is hypovolemic shock? when such a large amount of plasma/blood is lost that an insufficient amount of fluid is available to fill circulatory system
define shock: failure of circulation in which BP is inadequate to support oxygen perfusion of vital tissue + is unable to remove byproducts of metabolism
define epitaxis: nosebleed
equation to covert Fahrenheit to Celsius: C= (f-32)/ 1.8
equation to covert Celsius to Fahrenheit: F= (c x 1.8) + 32
what is needed when taking a patients history? -physical evaluation -skin color -temperature -level of consciousness - level of breathing
What does NPO stand for? nothing by mouth
define pulse: advancing pressure wave in artery caused by expulsion of blood when the left ventricle contract
what are the common places to take a pulse? - radial (thumb side of wrist) - brachial (anticubital fossa) -carotid (neck)
Low 02 saturation's at the cellular level (hypoxia) increase what four things? - respiratory rate - heart rate - blood pressure -depth of breathing
Low oxygen saturation levels are comprised of what two things? -metabolic rate - homeostasis
Homeostasis is maintained at ____% oxygen which is equivalent to atmospheric concentrations of oxygen. 21%
Define Apnea: absence of spontaneous breathing
Define dyspnea: difficulty breathing
define Tachypnea: increased respiratory rate (above 20)
Normal respiratory rates for adults: 12-20 per minute
Normal respiratory rates for children (under 10): 20-30 per minute
normal respiratory rates for newborns: 30 -60 per minute
define respiratory rate: respiration's provide oxygen to organs + eliminates carbon dioxide from the tissues
Define bradycardia and list causes low/slow heart rate (40 0r below) causes: hypothermia seen in athletes
define tachycardia and list causes: high/fast heartbeat (anything of 100) causes: exercise fever anemia CHF respiratory disorders shock hypoxia
pulse rates (heart rates) in adults: 60-100 beats per minute
pulse rates (heart rates) in children under 10: 70-120 beats per minute
measuring BP (systolic): 1st sound (top #) pressure in contracted state should be 95-140 mm Hg
measuring BP (diasolic): bottom #(when sound can no longer be heard) pressure in relaxed state shoukd be 60-90 mm Hg
what is a sphymomanometer: BP cuff
define hypotension: low BP (less than 95/60)
define hypertension: High BP (increased workload on heart causes damage to heart, brain, kidneys, and lungs
normal body temps in Fahrenheit and Celsius F: 97.7- 99.5 C: 36.5- 37.5
define fever: sign of increased body metabolism usually because of infection Fibrile
what part of the brain regulates temperature? hypothalamus
define homeostasis: relative constancy in the internal environment of the body that is naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote survival
causes of LOW HCT (hematocrit) - anemia - blood loss - pregnancy
causes of high HCT (hematocrit) - erythrocytosis - dehydration - shock
HCT (hematocrit): normal counts and function males : 36-54% females: 40-48% percent of cellular components in your blood to fluid or plasma
causes of low HGB (hemoglobin) - anemia - pregnancy - hemorrhage - excessive fluid intake
causes of high HGN (hemoglobin) - COPD - CHF -high altitude
HGB (hemoglobin) normal count and primary function 12.0- 18.0 g/dl oxygen is carried to tissues in the RBC's via hemoglobin
causes of low RBC count and symptoms - anemia - leukemia - post hemorrhage symptoms: fatigue short of breath pale color
causes of high RBC count - dehydration - excessive diarrhea - acute poisoning - pulmonary fibrosis
Normal RBC count: 4000- 6200
causes of low WBC count - chemotherapy - aplastic anemia - aids
causes of high WBC count: - acute infection - acute leukemia - post surgery - trauma -menstruation
WBC normal count and function: 4800- 10,000 function: to fight off and prevent infection
kidney function: causes of low creatinine levels -kidney disease
kidney function: causes of high creatinine levels -renal dysfunction - nephritis -necrosis or atrophy - destruction of muscle tissue - hyperthyroidism - rheumetoid arthritis
normal creatinine levels: .7- 1.5 mg/dl
kidney function: causes of low BUN (blood urea nitrogen) - liver damage - pregnancy - low protein diet - high carb diet
kidney function: cause of high BUN (blood urea nitrogen) - decreased kidney function - dehydration - strenuous exercise - high protein diet - mercury poisoning
kidney function: BUN (blood urea nitrogen) normal counts: 7-21 mg/ dl
define hyperglycemia high blood sugar, develops over time and requires insulin
define hypoglycema excessive insulin (low blood sugar) needs to eat often
vasovagal reaction brain deprived of 02= fainting
syncope fainting
TIA transcient ischemic attack = mini stroke
code amber: missing patient/person -- can be for adult or child
code red: fire
code blue: Cardiac (adult)
code pink: cardiac (child)
code silver: hostage situation/ person with weapon
code grey violent combative person
code orange hazardous material spill or release
code black: bomb threat
code purple: surge capacity
code white (internal): internal situation
code white (external): external situation
signs and symptoms of a cerebrovascular accident (stroke): -paralysis on one or both sides - slurred speech - loss of vision or consciousness *may occur suddenly or over hours
CVA (cerebrovascular accident) - stroke rupture of a cerebral artery causing a hemorrhage or an artery made be occluded causing an interruption in blood flow
Created by: byeaton462
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