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DH Lecture Four

Disruptive Behaviour Disorders 1: ADHD

QuestionAnswer
What are the three subtypes of ADHD? Predominantly Inattentive, Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive, Combined
List the six symptoms for Hyperactivity (Strocc) Squirms and fidgets, talks excessively, runs/climbs excessively, on the go/"driven by a motor", can't stay seated, can't play/work quietly
List the three symptoms for Impulsivity (Bic) Blurts out answers, Intrudes/interrupts others, Can't wait turn
Hyperactivity and Impulsivity symptoms are ________________ symptoms while Inattentively symptoms is just _______________ symptoms Behavioural, Inattentive
List the 9 symptoms for Inattentivity (Ccan Fledd) Carelessness, Can't organise, Avoids/dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort, No follow through, Forgetful in daily activity, Loses important items, Easily distractible, Difficulty sustaining attention in activity, Doesn't listen
How many Behavioural symptoms (hyperactive/impulsivity) and how many Inattentive symptoms must the child have to be diagnosed with the Hyperactive/Impulsiveness subtype? At least 6 Hyperactive/Impulsive and less than 6 Inattention symptoms
What are the 6 criteria for the clinical diagnosis of ADHD (what must the symptoms be..?) Symptoms must be present before 7 years old, Present for at least 6 months, Maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level (social, academic and occupational), Occur across two or more settings, Cause significant impairment, Not better explained...
What two of these criteria are the same for all disorders? Must cause significant impairment, Must not be better explained by another disorder
ADHD is highly _____________. This means that it rund in family and is inborn. There is a ___ to ___% chance that the child will get it. It is also more strongly transmitted from _________ to ____? Heritable, 60-70%, Father to Son
ADHD begins in _____________? childhood
ADHD is ______________ in nature. This means that the child will continue to develop but will always....? (there is not much room for improvement, always behind over time) developmental, will always stay behind others at the same age.
Children with ADHD have difficulties in? Behaviour, Cognitive functioning, Social functioning
Children have difficulty in behaviour because they are overly ______, not able to keep still and c______________? Active, concentrate
Children with ADHD also have difficulty in Cognitive functioning - their higher-order functioning such as pl_________, or_________, regulating how the rest of the brain works. They do worse across the board in _________ tests - involving ___,___,___? planning, attention, neurological, language, attention and motor skills (fine motor skills)
They also have difficulty in social functioning because they are very a______ and '___________' and often say inappropriate things to other children such as "your ugly". They also have trouble ___ emotions so when dont get what they want they ___ up. active, 'in your face', regulating, act
ADHD is less prominent as you move up the ____ ranges from preschoolers to adults age
What does the term persisters refer to? Children who continue and persist to have ADHD
What does the term remitters refer to? Children who do not continue to have ADHD as they have learnt techniques to improve
What is one of the reasons why some children grow out of ADHD when they are older? Because when you are younger it is hard having ADHD in school where you have to sit still but when you are older you can have practical and active jobs such as adventure tourism or car sales people (as they can talk a lot).
ADHD decreases over the life span but is a disorder that can..? last over a persons entire lifespan
ADHD looks quite different over time...with children the most common problem is _____ and ____ but with middle school age is is the _______ and with adults it is difficulty in _____ where they are ____, not relaxed and cant organize or _____. hyperactivity, impulsiveness, combined, inattention, restless, plan
What age do we recommend you do not diagnose before? Why is this? Age 6 and because from age 6 to 9 it tends to become more stable
Marakovitz & Campbell (1998) did a ______ study of children aged _to _yrs who were ______/_______ and found that from _ to _ they become more _______. By age _ half no longer presented it and 1/3 were p_______. By age 9, ___ of these were still ________ longitudinal, 6 to 9, hyperactive/impulsivity, 6 to 9, stable, 6, persisters, 2/3, persisters.
The validity of assessing impairment is not very good because there are no set __________ of how to assess _____________. It is very __________ to what the psychogist thinks is impairment guidelines, impairment, subjective
What did Gordon et al (2006) consider? How important assessing for impairment is
What data did Gordon et al (2006) do and what did he find? He looked at a bunch of children who had met criteria for ADHD based on symptoms only! And then when he imposed an impairment criteria, only 33% (1/3) of them met symptoms + impairment criteria
What can we conclude from Gordon et al (2006)'s study? That is is important to consider impairment
Healey et al (2008) looked at various impairment cut off points (rangin from 75th to __th percentile) and found that it reduced preschool children meeting criteria by 46 to __% 90th, 77%
What can we conclude form the Healey et al (2008) study? That it is debatable as to where the cut off point for impairment should be
When to seek help depends on what four things? Severity, Chronicity, Persuasiveness, Interference with functioning
Is this Severity, Chronicity, Persuasiveness or Interference? "Clearly in excess of what would be expected for age" Severity
Is this Severity, Chronicity, Persuasiveness or Interference? "Interfering with family, school and social aspects of life" Interference with functioning
Is this Severity, Chronicity, Persuasiveness or Interference? "Not a transient (short lasting) disturbance or reaction" Chronicity
Is this Severity, Chronicity, Persuasiveness or Interference? "Situationally (occurs over numerous situations) and Feedback from others (should hear about it from others such as teachers)" Persuasiveness
With interference of functioning, even if it is causing stress and interference on family and others in classroom, does is have to effect the child to be able to seek help? No, if they are stopping children from getting work done or impacting on siblings lives and stopping them from making friends then this is considered as impairment
At the moment there are two evidence-based practices for treatment of ADHD. What are they? Medication and Psychosocial interventions
Medication involves s___________ and non____________ stimulants and non-stimulants
What is the most common stimulant? And why is it used? Ritalin, because it calms them down
Most ADHD children have loe levels of ____________ which is our __________ system in our brain. The medication _______ increases the ___________ levels to a normal level that calms them down. Dopamine, inhibitory, Ritalin, Dopamine
What are the side effects of Ritalin? And what are the social problems of Ritalin? Can stump their growth and can cause sleep problems. Social problems are that it's highly sort after by drug addicts who may break into your home if they know your child has ADHD, and if children are seen taking medication at school they are odd ones out
Because taking Ritalin medication at school can cause other children to think they are odd and not socialize with them, most people decide to draw the medication out over time and take it less frequently but this is not as ____________ compared to..? affective, compared to when you take it over short periods of time.
Ritalin does or does not have long-terms effects? Does not
Psychosocial interference is referred to as Non-medication and we would usually use a combination of medication and ______________ intervention psychosocial
Psychosocial Interventions include...? Parent education, Parent training and School-based interventions,
Psychosocial interventions often involve teaching the child how to relax and ______ themselves down, "stop-think-go", teach them ______ skills - how to interact with other children, learning interventions and self-esteem interventions calm, social
Another psychosocial intervention is called 'Behavioural management' and involves the use of consisten _____________ and _____________. Rewards and consequences
The important thing with Behavioural Management is to keep your rules _______ and you must have rewards that are actually _____ and punishments that are actually _______. Consistent!!!, rewarding, aversive
Created by: alicemcc33