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Rad therapy Onc 1

define etiology the study of the cause of disease
define epidemiology the study of disease incidence
define prevalence the probability of disease in the entire population at any point in time
define disease incidence the probability that a patient without disease develops the disease during an interval
the principle method of lung cancer detection conventional chest x-ray
type of lung cancer that has the best prognosis with approximately 20% of patients surviving over five years NSCLC
common sites for lung cancer metastasis cervical lymph nodes, liver, brain, bones, adrenal glands, kidneys, and contralateral lung
most effective single chemotherapy agent for bronchogenic cancers Cisplatin
considered an oncologic emergency superior vena cava syndrome
the critical structures of concern in the treatment field for lung cancers spinal cord, heart, and normal lung
Asbestos is commonly associated with what respiratory tumor? malignant mesothelioma
What nodes do rectal lesions that extend into the anal canal drain? Inguinal nodes
most common malignancy of the large bowel accounting for 90% to 95% of all tumors Adenocarcinoma
most common site of distant metastasis for colorectal cancer liver
treatment of choice for colorectal cancer Surgery
Where does lymphatic spread initially occur in anal cancer? perirectal nodes and anorectal nodes
most common presenting symptom of anal cancer Rectal bleeding
What is the most common histology of anal cancer, comprising approximately 80% of the cases? Squamous cell carcinoma
considered the preferred treatment for most patients with anal cancer A combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy (5FU- and mitomycin C)
What is a condition in which the distal esophagus is lined with a columnar epithelium rather than a stratified squamous epithelium? Barrett’s esophagus
most common presenting symptoms of esophageal cancer Dysphagia and weight
Squamous cell carcinomas frequently occur in which portion of the esophagus? the upper and middle thoracic esophagus
most common sites of distant metastasis for esophageal cancer liver and lung
What are the two most commonly combined modality techniques for esophageal cancers? Definitive chemoradiation therapy and neoadjuvant preoperative chemoradiation therapy
How does esophageal cancer tend to spread? longitudinally
location of the pancreas L1-2 in the upper abdomen
Where do pancreatic cancers most frequently occur? head and neck of the pancreas
treatment of choice for pancreatic cancer Surgery
What is the most common drug used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer? Gemcitabine
When treating a lesion in the head of the pancreas, how much of the right kidney is in the treated volume? Approximately 50%
Which type of cancer is more prevalent than other gynecologic cancers among younger women? Cervical cancer
Which two gynecological cancers are rare and usually occur in older women? Vaginal and vulvar
most radiosensitive gynecologic structure ovary
primary drainage pattern of the cervix the external iliac, obturator, and hypogastric chains
What is the predictable lymphatic spread pattern of vulvar cancer? first to the superficial inguinal nodes, then deep femoral nodes, and eventually to pelvic nodes
treatment of choice for vaginal cancers Radiation therapy
For carcinoma in situ and stage 1 well- differentiated cancer, the entire vagina may be treated via brachytherapy alone with what dose? 60 Gy
most common pathologic type of cervical cancer Squamous cell carcinoma
What is the usual treatment for stage 0 and stage Ia1 invasive cancer of the cervix? a total abdominal hysterectomy with a vaginal cuff
What drug increases the risk of endometrial cancer? Tamoxifen
useful prognostic indicator of successful chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer Serum CA-125
most common malignancy for males in the US Carcinoma of the prostate
Where do most prostate carcinomas develop? peripheral glands
treatment of choice for stage 3 prostate cancers External beam radiation with hormonal therapy
Which lymphatics do the fossa navicularis and penile urethra follow? follow lymphatics of the penis to the superficial and deep inguinal nodes
What is the commonly applied treatment for patients with stage 1 seminoma? A radical orchiectomy and post-operative irradiation of the paraaortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodes
What disease has been associated with renal cell carcinoma? von Hippel-Lindau disease
Where does the lymphatic drainage of the kidney and renal pelvic occur? the paraaortic and paracaval nodes
What is the most important prognostic indicator and significant aspect of staging for breast cancer? number of axillary lymph nodes
most common histologic type of breast malignancy Infiltrating ductal carcinoma
Which type of breast cancer yields an extremely poor prognosis Inflammatory carcinoma
In what quadrant do the majority of breast cancers arise? upper-outer quadrant
condition in which the skin develops an orange appearance, and it is a clinical sign of inflammatory breast cancer? Peau d’orange
TD5/5 for bladder 65Gy
TD5/5 for brain 45Gy
TD5/5 for colon 45Gy
TD5/5 for esophagus 55Gy
TD5/5 for kidney 23Gy
TD5/5 for optic chiasma 45Gy
TD5/5 for stomach 50Gy
lymphatics involved with cervical cancer parametrial nodes, followed by pelvic, common iliac, periaortic, and supraclavicular nodes
T/F: The connective tissue immediately lateral to the uterine wall is the endometrium. False: parametrium
T/F: Chronic ulcerative colitis is the hereditary disease in which the entire large bowl is studded with polyps. False: familial adenomatous polyposis
Patients with rectal cancer usually have rectal bleeding. This may be bright red blood on the toilet paper or mixed in or on the stool. This defines ________________. Hematochezia
T/F: African Americans have a 50% higher incidence to develop esophageal cancer than whites. True
Created by: ejm2008
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