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psych midterm ch 8

QuestionAnswer
learning enduring changes in behavior that occur with experience
orienting response automatic shift of attention toward a new stimulus
habituation organisms adapting to constant stimulation / change in behavior due to experience
association process by which 2 pieces of info from the environment are repeatedly linked so that we begin to connect them in minds
conditioning form of associative learning in which behaviors are triggered by associations with events in the environment
classical conditioning form of associative learning where neural stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which one has an automatic/inborn response (reflex conditioning)
UCR (unconditioned response) natural, automatic/inborn reaction to a stimulus
US (unconditioned stimulus) environmental input that always produce the same unlearned response
CS (conditioned stimulus) previously neutral input that an organism learns to associate with the UCS
CR (conditioned response) a behavior that an organism learns to perform when presented with the CS alone
forward conditioning neutral stimulus presented right before the UCS
backward conditioning neutral stimulus follows right after the UCS (less successful)
2 fundamental criteria for stimulus-response conditioning to succeed 1. multiple pairings of UCS & neutral stimulus (CS) necessary for an association to occur & for the CS to produce the conditioned response 2. ucs&cs must be paired/presented very close together in time for association to form
stimulus generalization extension of the association between UCS&CS to include a broad array of similar stimuli
stimulus discrimination restriction of a CR to only the exact CS to which it's conditioned
extinction weakening & disappearance of a conditioned response in the absence of reinforcement
spontaneous recovery sudden reappearance of an extinguished response
law of effect Thorndike's term. consequences of a behavior increase/decrease- likelihood the behavior will be repeated
Watson father of behaviorism. fear of white rats experiment
Thorndike law of effect.
what did thorndike & skinner both view? consequences of an individual's actions as the most important determinants of behavior
skinner operant conditioning: process of changing behavior by manipulating the consequences of that behavior
reinforcer internal/external event that increases the frequency of a behavior
primary reinforcers innate, unlearned reinforcers that satisfy biological needs (food, water, sex)
secondary reinforcers reinforcers learned by association (usually via classical conditioning) ex. money, grades, peer approval
positive reinforcement presentation/addition of a stimulus after a behavior occurs that increases how often that behavior will occur
negative reinforcement removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase the frequency of that behavior
punishment stimulus that decreases the frequency of a behavior
positive punishment addition of a stimulus that decreases behavior
negative punishment removal of a stimulus to decrease behavior
skinner box simple chamber used for operant conditioning of small animals
shaping reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior
operant conditioning treatment of autism or harmful/aggressive behaviors in autistic children ABA (applied behavioral analysis)
continuous reinforcement rewarding a behavior every time it occurs
intermittent reinforcement reinforcement of a behavior but not after every response produces stronger responses
schedules of reinforcement patterns of intermittent reinforcement distinguished by whether reinforcement occurs after a set # of responses/after a certain amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement (FR, VR, FI, VI)
Fixed ratio schedule (FR) reinforcement allows a set # of responses
variable ratio schedule (VR) pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which the # of responses needed for reinforcement changes
Fixed interval schedule (FI) pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are always reinforced after a set period of time passed
variable interval schedule (VI) pattern of intermittent reinforcement where responses are reinforced after time periods of different duration passed
conditioned taste aversion learned avoidance of a particular taste/food
latent learning learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement & isnt demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs (Edward Tolman)
enactive learning learning by doing
observational learning learning by watching the behavior of others
social learning theory kind of learning that occurs when we model/imitate the behavior of others
modeling imitation of behaviors performed by others
Albert Bandura seeked more than operant & classical conditioning (Bobo doll experiment)
imprinting rapid & innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver very soon after birth
ethology study of animal behavior
sensitivity period period when a particular type of learning occurs very readily if an animal is exposed to a particular stimulus/situation
Created by: alexisyoo