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Intro to Radiologic

Chapter 9 Basic Radiation Protection

Radiographers responsibility regarding ionizing radiation? minimize radiation dose to the patient, anyone else in the room and to himself.
"back ground" radiation, 82% of exposure to humans. Natural Radiation
Artifical radiation, 18% of exposure to humans. Man-made radiation.
Why is it important to minimize raditaion dose? Unknown risks, and the risk of biological change when exposed to radiation.
Natural Radiation Terrestrial & Cosmic radiation, Varies depending on location, higher altitude receives more radiation.
Terrestrial Radiation Radioactive elements in earth (radium, uranium), internal (within the body-potassium, carbon, tritium) Radon.
Man-made Radiation Medical xrays, nuclear medicine, consumer products, nuclear fallout and occupational.
Three things possible when xray passes through a pts body. Transmitted-gets to IR-dark. Absorbed-light. or scattered-gray
2 important interactions with matter. Photoelectric Intereaction(Photoelectric effect or Photoelectric absorption) & Compton Scatter.
Photoelectric Effect interaction with matter in which a photon strikes an inner shell electron, causing its ejection from orbit with the complete absorption of the photons energy.
Photoelectric Effect Secondary radiation will not make it out of the patient. It interacts and is absorbed.
Photoelectric Effect Occurs with a higher energy beam.
Compton Scattering Interaction with matter in which a higher-energy photon strikes a loosely bound outter electron, removing it from its shell and the remaining energy is released as scattered photons.
Compton Scattering Secondary radiation actively moving makes it out of the patient leaving the body as scatter. Occurs with a lower energy beam, interacts and leaves.
Compton Scattering Where most occupational exposure comes from.
exposure in air Roentgen(TI) Coulomb/kilogram(SI)
Absorbed dose Rad(TI) Gray(SI)
Dose Equivalent Rem(TI) Sievert (SI)
Activity Curie (TI) Becquerel (SI)
RAD Radiation Absorbed Dose
REM Radiation Equivalent Man
Are all equal at 1 R, rad, rem
rem 1 rem x age
mSv 10 x age
ALARA As low as reasonably achievable.
Ionization occurs when a human is exposed to xrays.
4 possible results from radiation expsoure cell undamaged, cell damaged but repairs, cell damaged with no repair, cell dies.
Latent Period ti,e between radiation dose and Sx, during this time nothing happens.
Differentiation simple cells are more sensitive to the xray then complex cells.
Metabolic Rate Cells that divid & multiply faster are more sensitive than those that replicate slowly.
ARS Acute Radiation Syndrome, main thing to occur.
Acute Radiation Syndrome Can happen within minutes, days or weeks of exposure.
Late Efftects of Exposure develope over a period of time 5-30 years. Somatic and genetic effects.
Time, Distance, Shielding 3 Cardinal Principles of Protection.
Time Fast exposure, high kVp to lower mAs, limit holding time.
Distance limit holding, double distance decreases exposure by 1/4 because of inverse square law.
Shielding aprons, flat contact shields, shadow shields, lead aprons, lead gloves.
TLD Thermoluminescent Dosimeter. reusable, used in hospitals. plastic holder with crystals that absorb radiation exposure.
Created by: mpearce210