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psych midterm ch 7

QuestionAnswer
memory ability to store&use info
3 stage model of memory classification of memories based on duration as sensory, short term, long term
sensory memory part of memory that holds in its original sensory form for a very brief time period (half second or less)
working aka short term memory part of memory that stores a limited amount of info before its forgotten/stored to long term (20-30 sec)
long term memory part of memory that has capacity to store a vast amount of info for 30 sec+whole lifetime
iconic memory brief visual record left on retina of the eye
echoic memory short term retention of sounds
working memory part of memory required to attend to & solve a problem at hand; used interchangeably with short term memory; forgotten after used. 1. ATTENDS to a stimulus 2. STORES info about stimulus 3. REHEARSES stored process to solve problems
difference between working memory and short term memory? working emphasizes function, short term emphasizes duration
chunking process of breaking down a list of items to be remembered into a smaller set of meaningful units
Baddeley's model of short term memory central executive (focuses attention) 1. visuospatial sketchpad (images, spatial relations) 2. episodic buffer (temporary storage for events/experiences) 3. phonological loop (sounds/languages)
rehearsal process of repeatedly practicing material so that it enters long term memory
serial position effect tendency to have better recall for items in a list according to their position in the list
primacy effect tendency to preferentially recall items at beginning of a list
recency effect tendency to preferentially recall items at end of a list
implicit memory aka nondeclarative memory type of long term memory made up of knowledge based on previous experience ex: skills we perform automatically once we've mastered them, resides outside conscious awareness (bike riding, adding numbers)
procedural memory kind of memory made up of implicit knowledge for almost any behavior/physical skill we've learned
priming kind of implicit memory that arises when recall's improved by earlier exposure to the same/similar stimuli
explicit memory aka declarative memory type of long term memory: knowledge that consists of the conscious recall of facts & event (can be deliberately accessed/declared)
semantic memory our memory for facts & knowledge ex: what we learn in school
episodic memory form of memory that recalls the experiences we've had (more personal/autobiographical than semantic)
what are the stages of long term memory? encoding, consolidation, storage, retrieval
encoding process of the brain attending, taking in, integrating new info (1st stage of long term memory formation. absolutely crucial & driven by attention)
automatic processing encoding of info that occurs with little effort/conscious attention to the task aka what you ate for breakfast (easily encoded, forgotten by dinner)
semantic processing encoding of info that occurs with careful attention & conscious effort
levels of processing the concept that the more deeply people encode info, the better they recall it 1. structural processing: shallowest level 2. phonemic processing: mid level 3. semantic processing: deepest level
mnemonic device scheme that helps people remember info ex: rhyming, chunking, rehearsal, acronyms
consolidation 2nd stage of long term memory foundation; the process of establishing, stabilizing/solidifying a memory (provides time for proteins to be manufactured that are manufactured during long term memory foundation)
2 facts of consolidation 1. beyond effects of interference&decay 2. sleep important
storage 3rd stage of long term memory, storage of memory.
hierarchies way of organizing related pieces of info from the most specific feature they have in common to the most general
schema mental frameworks that develop from our experiences with particular people, objects/events (ex: having bad chihuahua pet = bad impression of chihuahuas)
associative network chain of associations between related concepts
mnemonic device scheme that helps people remember info ex: rhyming, chunking, rehearsal, acronyms
association psychological process that binds concepts together
consolidation 2nd stage of long term memory foundation; the process of establishing, stabilizing/solidifying a memory (provides time for proteins to be manufactured that are manufactured during long term memory foundation)
neural networks computer models that imitate the way neurons talk to each other
2 facts of consolidation 1. beyond effects of interference&decay 2. sleep important
parallel distributed processing (PDP) model of memory storage that integrates associative & neural networks. propose that associations involve the simultaneous activity of many nodes
storage 3rd stage of long term memory, storage of memory.
retrieval recovery of info stored in memory, 4th stage
hierarchies way of organizing related pieces of info from the most specific feature they have in common to the most general
cortical association area (memory storage) 1. procedural memory (cerebellum&striatum) 2. emotional memory (amygdala) 3. declarative memory (hippocampus)
schema mental frameworks that develop from our experiences with particular people, objects/events (ex: having bad chihuahua pet = bad impression of chihuahuas)
where are sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory stored? 1. sensory cortex 2. hippocampus & frontal lobe 3. cortex, subcortex, (prefrontal cortex retrieves them)
associative network chain of associations between related concepts
prefrontal cortex front most region of the frontal lobes that plays an important role in attention, appropriate social behavior, impulse control & working memory
association psychological process that binds concepts together
what are the sensory cortexes & where are they stored? 1. visual cortex - occipital lobes 2. auditory cortex - temporal lobes 3. somatosensory cortex - parietal lobes
neural networks computer models that imitate the way neurons talk to each other
external sensations travel to the _____ then relay the sensory info to the _____ for further processing thalamus, cerebral cortex
parallel distributed processing (PDP) model of memory storage that integrates associative & neural networks. propose that associations involve the simultaneous activity of many nodes
prefrontal cortex uses 1. what info in the environment is attention worthy 2. recall info 3. attention & focus
retrieval recovery of info stored in memory, 4th stage
cortical association area (memory storage) 1. procedural memory (cerebellum&striatum) 2. emotional memory (amygdala) 3. declarative memory (hippocampus)
where are sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory stored? 1. sensory cortex 2. hippocampus & frontal lobe 3. cortex, subcortex, (prefrontal cortex retrieves them)
prefrontal cortex front most region of the frontal lobes that plays an important role in attention, appropriate social behavior, impulse control & working memory
what are the sensory cortexes & where are they stored? 1. visual cortex - occipital lobes 2. auditory cortex - temporal lobes 3. somatosensory cortex - parietal lobes
external sensations travel to the _____ then relay the sensory info to the _____ for further processing thalamus, cerebral cortex
prefrontal cortex uses 1. what info in the environment is attention worthy 2. recall info 3. attention & focus
where are explicit long term memories stored? cortex, hippocampus
where are implicit long term memories stored? subcortex, amygdala, cerebellum, striatum
emotions + memory emotions help recall memory (amygdala, hippocampus)
flashbulb memories detailed esp vivid memories of very specific, highly charged events
long term potentiation strengthening of a synaptic connection that results when synapse of 1 neuron repeatedly fires & excites another neuron
CREB protein that strengthen synapse 1. turns on certain genes that initiate a process that builds other proteins that strengthen the synaptic connection 3. allows memories to stick
forgetting weakening/loss of memories over time
interference disruption of memory because other info competes with the info we're trying to recall
retroactive interference disruption of memory because new experiences/info causes people to forget previously learned experiences/info
proactive interference disruption of memory because previously learned info interferes with the learning of new info
forgetting curve a graphic depiction of how recall steadily declines over time
absent mindedness form of forgetfulness that results from inattention
blocking inability to retrieve some info once its stored
repression unconscious act of keeping threatening thoughts, feelings, impulses out of consciousness
suggestibility problem with memory that occurs when memories are implanted in our minds based on leading questions, comments, suggestions by someone else/other source
false memories memories for events that never happened but were suggested by someone/something
recovered memory a memory from a real event that was encoded, stored, but not retrieved for a long period of time until some later event brings it suddenly into consciousness
amnesia memory loss due to brain injury/disease
anterograde amnesia inability to remember events & experiences that occur after an injury/the onset of a disease
retrograde amnesia an inability to recall events/experiences that happened before the onset of a disease/injury
the limited capacity to process information that is under conscious control is known as attention
How many stages of sleep are in non-REM sleep? 4
The Greek word root hypnos means sleep
LSD is derived from ergot, a grain fungus
After the night’s first period of REM sleep, nonREM = shorter, REM = longer
To psychoanalytic therapists, the story line of a dream, or its surface content, is known as its _______________ content. manifest
What is hyperthymestic syndrome? ability to remember some detail of every single day
In the case of H.M., doctors removed the hippocampus on both sides of his brain, resulting in short term memory loss
The FDA has approved the two drugs donepezil and galantamine for the treatment of what medical condition? alzheimer's
Ted tries teaching his dog to wave. begins to reward Bailey every time he lifts his paw in the air. Then, Ted rewards Bailey any time he lifts his paw and moves it even slightly. Finally, he rewards him only when he makes a full waving motion. shaping
Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting extensively in birds
Which theorist proposed the concept of latent learning? edward tolman
Which of the following statements about mirror neurons is false? mirror neurons are located in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
Harry Harlow's studies with baby rhesus monkeys demonstrated the importance of ____________ in promoting optimal development. contact comfort
Alzheimer's disease has been likened to low levels of which of the following neurotransmitters? acetylcholine
When we are born, the brain has more than ______ cells. 100 bil
According to a survey by Vandewater et al. (2007), approximately what percentage of children aged 0 to 2 had watched TV on the day before the survey was taken? 60%
Which theorist outlined the stages that people may move through after learning that they are going to die? elizabeth ross
Created by: alexisyoo