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XR 101 Final Exam

XR 101 Final exam

1. how does filtration reduce patient exposure? by removing longer-wavelength photons
2. what is the national council on radiation protection and measurements recommendation for the amount of total filtration? 2.5 mm Al equiv
3. the unseen image that is contained on the film, before processing is called? the latent image
what are 4 essential elements required for xray production? target, vacuum, electron source, high potential difference
what is the target of the xray tube made of? tungsten
what is the term used to describe the radiation that is absorbed by matter? attenuation
the radiation that exits the body in all directions and causes unwanted exposure on the film as well as anyone who is in the room is called what? scatter radiation
9. the device used to produce the high voltage needed for xray production is called what? the transformer
10. what is the smallest possible unit of electromagnetic energy called? the photon
11. the electrical current flowing in an xray tube is measured in what unit? milliamperes
12. electrons are made available in the filmanent by a process called? thermionic emissions
13. the greatest portion of the xray beam is made of what type of radiation? Bremsstrahlung
14. the penetrating power of the xray beam is controlled by controlling which varying factor? kilivoltage
15. which of the following functions involves the autotransformer? kVp selection
16. the intensity of the xray beam is greatest at the cathode or anode? cathode
17. if the mA is doubled, the xray photons emitted from the tube are doubled or halved? doubled
18. what material is used as the added filtration material in the xray tube? aluminum
19. which of the following supplies and controls the heat required by the xray tube filament for thermionic emission of electrons? the filament circut
20. which of the following is controlled directly on the xray control panel? the mA
21. xray tubes should undergo the warm-up procedure AGAIN after they have been idle for more than 1 hour
22. what is the principle source of scatter radiation in radiography the patient
23. tissue with less mass, such as adipose (fat) will absorb more or less radiation as compared to tissue with more denisty such as bone? less
24. true or false? scatter radiation has more energy than the primay xray beam? FALSE!! scatter radiation has LESS energy!
25. when the SID is halved, what happes to the intensity of the radiation in the field? it is quadrupled
26. when the SID is doubled, what happens to the intensity of the radiation in the field? it is quartered
27. when the SID is doubled, what happens to the size of the radiation field? it is quadrupled
28. when the SID is halved, what happens to the size of the radiation field? it is quartered
29. what particles are located in the nuclesus of the atom? the protons and the neutrons
30. when an electron is gained or lost, the atom is said to be _____? ionized
31. what image receptor speed will result in the lowest patient dose? fast speed IR systems
32. what is the primary purpose of using gonad sheilding during radiography? reduce the likelihood of genetic effects
33. what is the greatest cause of unnecessary radiation to patients that can be controlled by the xray tech? repeat exposures!
34. what are the primary factors of exposure? mA, time, kVp, SID
35. if the image is underexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem? increase mAs
36. higher kVp settings produce images with long-scale or short-scale contrast? long-scale
37. what is the term used to describe unwanted exposure to the film fog
38. of the following, which is most radiosensitive? nerve, blood, muscle, skin blood
39. at what kVp levels do compton interactions occur? throughout the diagnostic kVp range
what are the 4 primary aspects of radiographic quality? density, contrast, distortion, recorded detail
what is another name for size distortion? magnification
what is the most effective way to reduce scatter radiation? the use of a grid, or buckey
43. if the size of the radiation field increases, what happens to scatter radiation fog? fog increases
44. which pathological condition would require a decrease in exposure factors? osteoporosis
45. how will the anode heel effect be seen on the image? the final image will be darker on the cathode side of the image
46. which quality factor will be most affected by angulation of the central ray, body part, or IR? distortion
47. patient motion results in an image with poor ___ ___ recorded detail
48. an image with an increased OID results in a final image with _________ magnification
49. motion results in an image with poor ___ ___ recorded detail
50. OID and magnification are directly or indirectly porportional? directly porportional
51. as OID increases, magnification ______ increases
52. contrast is primarily controlled by which radiographic factor? kVp
53. density is primarily controlled by which radiographic factor? mAs
54. mAs is the primary controlling factor of density or contrast? density
55. kVp is the primary controlling factor or density or contrast? contrast
56. what do we call the unsharp appearance of anatomical margins on a radiograph? penumbra
57. what are the 3 types of scatter radiation? coherent compton photoelectric
58. which type of scatter is also known as Thompson radiation? coherent
59. which type of radiation is also known as secondary radiation? photoelectric
60. which type of scatter radiation knocks out an outer-shell electron from it's orbit? compton
61. which type of radiation knocks out an inner shell electron? photoelectric
62. which rule states that the kVp may be altered to modify the appearance of the image by changing the scale of contrast 15% rule
63. true or false: the operator should always maximize their distance from the source of the radiation? true
64. what is the conventional unit of absorbed dose? rad
65. what is the conventional unit of radiation exposure? roentgen
66. what material is the cathode filament made of? tungsten
67. this type of grid has grid strips that diverge to follow the xray beam focused
68. which unit is used to express the total quantity of xrays in an exposure? mAs
69. what is the term for the distance from the tube to the film? SID (source-image distance)
70. what unit is used to measure radiation in air? Roentgen (R)
71. what unit is used to measure absorbed dose (D)? rad
72. what unit is used to measure equivalent dose (EqD) rem
73. what is the annual exposure limit for occupationally exposed workers 5 rem
74. what is the monthly limit to the embryo/fetus for a pregnant worker? must not exceed 0.05 rem
75. what is the total radiation limit for a 9 month period for a pregnant worker 0.5 rem