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UP10 Chapter 8

Cogntion and Language

Thinking The manipulation of mental representations of information.
Mental Images Representations in the mind of an object or event.
Concepts A mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
Prototypes Typical, highly representative examples of a concept.
Syllogistic Reasoning Formal reasoning in which people draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions.
Algorithm A rule that, if applied appropriately, guarantees a solution to a problem.
Heuristics A thinking strategy that may lead to a solution to a problem or decision, but - unlike algorithms - may sometimes lead to errors.
Means-Ends Analysis Involves repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists.
Insight A sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent of one another.
Functional Fixation The tendency to think of an object in terms of its typical use.
Mental Set The tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist.
Confirmation Bias The tendency to seek out and weight more heavily information that supports one's initial hypotheses and to ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions.
Creativity The ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways.
Divergent Thinking The ability to generate unusual, yet nonetheless appropriate, responses to problems or questions.
Convergent Thinking The ability to produce responses that are based primarily on knowledge and logic.
Language The communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules.
Grammar The system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed.
Phonology The study of the smallest units of speech, called phonemes.
Phonemes The smallest units of speech.
Syntax Ways in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences.
Semantics The rules governing the meaning of words and sentences.
Babble Meaningless speechlike sounds made by children from around the age of 3 months through 1 year.
Telegraphic Speech Sentences in which words not critical to the message are left out.
Overgeneralization The phenomenon by which children apply language rules even when the application results in an error.
Learning-Theory Approach (to language development) The theory that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning.
Nativist Approach (to language development) The theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development.
Universal Grammar Noam Chomsky's theory that all the world's languages share a common underlying structure.
Language-Acquisition Device A neural system of the brain hypothesized by Noam Chomsky to permit understanding of language.
Interactionist Approach (to language development) The view that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language.
Linguistic-Relativity Hypotheses The notion that language shapes and may determine the way people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world.
Created by: lizhopper2