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2 types of memos informative and persuasive
1st component of a memo and what it includes Main heading: To, From, Subject, Date
2nd component of a memo and what it includes Foreward: issue & why it's important, states what the author did, and states what the report contains
3rd component of a memo and what it includes Summary: states main findings, results, main points, primary implications, conclusions and/or recommendations. Analyze and evaluate your data briefly, don't just present it.
4th component of a memo and what it includes Discussion: 1. introduction - amplifies the purpose statement & background. Also provides an outline/forecast of the subtopics. 2. Body - prioritized & logically ordered subtopics. 3. Conclusion
5th component of a memo and what it includes Documentation: includes attachments when applicable
Purpose of progress reports helps managers see the details of a project as it unfolds - helps them quickly assess cost & evaluate problems
1st component of a progress report and what it includes Heading
2nd component of a progress report and what it includes Introductions: focus topic and purpose by explaining the organizational problem and why it's important, describes the overall project, explain deadline(s), forecast the rest of the report
3rd component of a progress report and what it includes -Completed Tasks (or progress to date) - describe current status of projects, plans, designs, tasks, programs - order the tasks logically -Uncompleted Tasks (or future work) - describe details of each task, anticipate problems/issues & propose resolution
4th component of a progress report and what it includes Conclusion: states whether the project is on schedule or not and, if not, why not. If it's behind, state when it will be completed. Even if it is on time, restate the estimated completion date. Tell the reader if there are any modications to the projec
5th component of a progress report and what it includes Appendix: documentation - organized well
When are tables helpful? good for presenting exact quantities
When are bar graphs helpful? easily understood - show discrete comparisons
When are line graphs helpful? show continuity & direction
When are pie charts helpful? compare parts to each other and to the whole. Compare and contrast percents.
when are illustrations helpful? depict relationships that are physical rather than numerical
Charactaristics of the Design process 1. empathy for users 2. definition of the design challenge 3. creativity and innovation 4. prototyping 5. testing 6. implementation!
Constraints of the design process limited by resources - physical and practical limitation
Criteria for success in the design process goals, desirable characteristics
Definition of nutrition environment Food sources located nearby - has a compelling influence on an individuals food choice
Environmental benefits of urban agriculture -ecological restoration -preservation of biodiversity -turning of organic waste into resources -reducing transport
Social benefits of urban agriculture -hunger prevention -food and income for low-income households -improvement of nutrition -poverty reduction -reduction of urban blight -job creation -local economic development and support of local food economies
Urban agricultures - Where? vacant lots, back/front/side yards, balconies, rooftops, roadsides
ways to minimize water usage -hold water in soil - can hold up to 3 times as much water -use ground contours to catch water -use plants that are suitable to the available water -plant densely to create shade -mulch -catch water for re-use
Urbanization centralization of water collection and supply -positives = clean, safe, cheap -negatives = use lots of energy, increase risk (natural disasters, source pollution), most municipal water is heavily filtered
Advantages of water catchment -relieves demand and reduces reliance on groundwater resources and springs -not subject to pollutants -cost-effective -simple -no energy/time on transport
P x A x C = W Water catchment equation -P=precipitation (ft), A=area (ft^2), C=runoff coefficient (efficiency %), W=volume of water (ft^3)
V_t = V_t-1 + R - D Water storage equation -V_t=volume in tank at the end of the month, V_t-1=volume at the end of the previous month, R=runoff amount for time period, D=demand for the time period
p1V1A1 = p2V2A2 mass flow rate -p=density, v=velocity, A=area
Q = v x A Q=flow rate, v= velocity, A = pipe area
Conduction definition Transfer of heat through materials without net mass motion of the material
Convection definition Transfer of heat between a solid and a fluid flowing past it
Radiation definition electromagnetic transfer of heat
Q = [A1U1 + A2U2 + ...](t_i - t_o) Convective heat loss equation. -Q=overall heat loss, A=surface area of component, U=heat loss factor, t_i=inside design temperature, t_o=outside design temperature
q = pVc_p(t_2 - t_1) Heat storage equation. q=sensible heat stored in the material, p=density of the substance, V=volume of substance, c_p = specific heat capacity of the substance, t_2 - t_1=temperature change of the material
Principles of structural design system needs to be safe, functional, and economical
Serviceability definition deformations are within allowable limits
Strength definition structural system can support loads w/ofailure
Factor of safety equation strength/factor of safety > load
Tributary area of beams Tributary area = Tributary width x Length of beam
P = (bu or by) x A Used for strength in tension or the yield/crushing failure in compression P=strength, by=yield, bu=ultimate stress, A=cross-sectional area *****bu x 1000!!!
P = (pi^2EI)/L^2 buckling failure in compression. E=modulus of elasticity, I=moment of inertia (I=1/12bh^3), L=length
M_max=(WL^2)/8 Maximum moment equation W=load perunity length, L=length
M_y = I/C x (bu or by) Strength in bending equation C= distance from axis (midpoint) to end (usually h/2)
I = P x A x T Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology
Sustainable Engineering Principles 1. work with nature, not against it 2. integrate rather than segregate (multi-functionality) 3. catch and store energy 4.produce no waste 5. observe and interact
Created by: tywellik