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Psychology- Exam 3

Learning, Memory & Cognition

Class Demonstration: Demonstrated when the similar sounding words DO NOT cause a reaction. Stimulus Discrimination
Class Demonstration: Demonstrated whenever the volunteer reacts to words that sound like CAN. Stimulus Generalization
Class Demonstration w/water: The Unconditioned Stimulus = ___________. Water
Class Demonstration w/water: The Conditioned Stimulus =__________. The word CAN
Class Demonstration w/water: The Unconditioned Response = ________. Flinch
Class Demonstration w/water: The Conditioned Response = _____________. Flinch without water
Class Demonstration: It will take several pairings of the word CAN and water before the voluntee demonstrates a reaction. Acquisition
The learned ability to distinguish betwee na CS and other stimuli that do NOT signal a US Stimulus Discrimination
Tendency to respond to stimuli that is similar to the CS Stimulus Generalization
After a period of rest an extinguished conditioned response will recover. Spontaneous Recovery
When an unconditioed stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus the conditioned response will decrease and eventually completely diminish Respondent Extinction
If you STOP pairing the stimuli, what eventually happens? Respondent Extinction
In acquistion the US and NS must be paired _________ time(s) in order for it to become a conditioned stimulus. Several
In acquistion the ________ __________ comes before the _______ __________. Neutral Stimulus, Unconditioned Stimulus
The initial stage in classical conditioning with association between a neutral stimulus and a conditioned stimulus take place. Acquisition
In class demonstration what two things were combined to get the unconditioned response (hand clapping). Neutral Stimulus (Whistle), Unconditioned Stimulus(Gummy Bears)
In the in class demonstration, name the following: Neutral Stimulus =_________. Unconditoned Stimulus =___________. Unconditioned Response =___________. Whistle, Gummy Bear, Hand Clapping
Food is almost always a(n) ____________. Unconditioned Stimulus
In Classical Conditioning the neutral stimulus becomes _________ ___________ and the _________ ______________ becomes the Conditioned Response. Conditioned Stimulus, Unconditioned Response
Learning to associate one stimulus with another stimulus. i.e. lightning/thunder Stimulus-Stimulus Learning
Occurs by association between events in our environment. When one event precedes another, we learn to associate the two. Classical Conditioning
Name the 3 forms of learning Classical Conditoning, Operant Conditioning and Observational Learning
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience. Learning
An experiment that suggested that pairing a neutral or harmless stimulus with an unconditionally frightening event would cause a person to associate fear with the harmless event. Watson & Little Albert
Phobias and Conditioned Taste Aversions are examples of __________. Conditioned Responses
Development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association. Conditioned Taste Aversion
Unconditioned Stimuli are associate with ___________ behaviors like salivating or flinching. Involuntary
The difference between Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning is that CC forms associations between _____________ and OC forms associations between __________ and _________. Two Stimuli Behaviors and Resulting Events
Behavior results in ___________. Consequences
Classical conditioning involves ___________ _________ that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. Respondent Behavior
Operant conditioning involves __________ ___________, a behavior that operates on the environment producing rewarding or punishing stimuli. Operant Behavior
The principle that behaviors are selected by their consequences; behavior having good consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior that leads to bad consequences is not repeated. Law of Effect
A box that has a lever that animal must press to get reward(food) Skinner's Box
Skinner's Box allows us to study _____________. Reinforcement
Any event that increases the future probability an behavior will occur (strengthens the behavior it follows). Reinforcement
Adding a Desireable stimulus Positive Reinforcement
Removing an Aversive Stimulus Negative Reinforcement
Innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. Primary Reinforcer(Innate)
Is a learned reinforcer. It gets its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer. Conditioned Reinforcer(Learned)
A reinforcer that occurs closely to a behavior in time. Rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. Immediate Reinforcer
A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. Delayed Reinforcer
Can be reinforced based on how much time has passed or on how many responses you gave. Reinforcement Schedules
get reinforced only close to the time you work Fixed Interval
Get reinforced at any random time so slow steady responding like checking Facebook. Variable Interval
Get reinforced after you respond 5 times like Smoothie King Fixed Ratio
Get reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses such as gambling or fishing Variable Ratio
Operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior closer towards target behavior through successive approximations. Shaping
Time = ________. Interval
Number of responses = ________. Ratio
Reinforcement always __________ behavior. Increases
Punishment always ___________ behavior. Decreases
Administer an adversive stimulus (Spanking, Parking Ticket) Positive Punishment
Withdraw a desireable stimulus. (Revoke Driver's License, Take away priveleges) Negative Punishment
Scalloped graph = _______. Fixed Interval
Slow and Steady graph = _______. Variable Interval
Fast rate with a stair shape graph= ________. Fixed Ratio
Highest rate of fast steady responding graph = __________. Variable Ratio
These graphs do not steadily increase because there is a "rest" period. Fixed Graphs
The graphs increase steadily because the effect is random and unknown. Variable Graphs
Positive Punishment= ______. Aversive
Positive Reinforcement=_________. Desireable
Negative Punishment =_________. Desirebale
Negative Reinforcement =__________. Aversive
An aversive event that decreases the future probability of an event occurring (weakens the response). Punishment
Does not teach appropriate behavior Avoidance/escape, anxiety Models aggression Teaches discrimination among situations are some examples of the issues with ___________. Punishment
A breakdown in learning ability caused by repeated exposure to uncontrollable aversive events Learned Helplessness
What happens when the learner has no control over when punishment is given? Learned Helplessness
The use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior. You can strengthen or weaken behavior. Behavior Modification
________ ________ predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. Biological Constraints
Animals drift towards their biologically predisposed instinctive behaviors Instinctive Drift
The __________ concluded that the innate behaviors were suppressed during the early stages of training and sometimes long into the training, but as training progressed, instinctive food-getting behaviors gradually replaced the conditioned behavior Breland's
When an organism learns something in its life, but the knowledge is not immediately expressed. It remains dormant, and may not be available to consciousness until specific events/experiences might need this knowledge to be demonstrated. Latent Learning
Evidence of cognitive processes during operant learning comes from rats during maze exploration, where they navigate it without an obvious reward. Rats seem to develop cognitive maps or mental representation of the layout of the maze Tolman's Experiment
Bandura’s _______ ________study (1961) indicated that individuals learn through imitating others who receive reward and punishments. Bobo Doll
Learning by watching others Observational Learning
What are the processes involved in Memory? Encoding, Storage and Retrieval
What are the four parts of Observational Learning? Attention, Memory, Imitation and Motivation
Any indication that learning has persisted over time. Memory
It is a constructive process: we actively organize and shape information. Memory
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems Encoding
Holding onto information for some period of time Storage
Getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used Retrieval
Some information (route to your school) is __________ processed. Automatically
However novel information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort. This is ____________. Effortful
Information enters through the sensory system, briefly registering in _________ ___________ which is fleeting. Sensory Memory
Selective attention filters the information into short-term memory, where it is held while __________ (__________) continues. Attention (Rehearsal)
If the information receives enough rehearsal (maintenance or elaborative), it will enter and be stored in ______-_______ ___________. Long-Term Memory
An unique and highly emotional moment can give rise to clear, strong, and persistent memory called ________ _________. Flashbulb Memory
Type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it Flashbulb Memory
When your recall is better for first and last items, but poor for middle items on a list Serial Position Effect
Tendency to forget what the person ahead of us in line has said because we are focusing on what we will say in our upcoming turn to speak. Next in Line Effect
Tendency to retain information more easily if we practice it repeatedly than if we practice it in one long session. Spacing Effect
We retain information better when our rehearsal is distributed over time. ________ _________(spacing effect) is better than massed practice. What we learn quickly, we forget quickly. Distributed Rehearsal
The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to relearn them on Day 2 Rehearsal
What are the 3 levels of processing accoring to Craik and Lockhart? Structural, Phenomic and Semantic Encoding
In __________, we cluster information into familiar, manageable units, such as words into sentences Chunking
When people develop expertise in an area, they often process information in __________ composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into lesser concepts and facts Hierarchies
Another way of chunking by taking the first letter of important concepts or words and creating an easy to remember word or phrase. Acronym
Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture-image memory lasting less than a second Iconic
The initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. Sensory Memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. Even if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within three or four seconds as we will see. Echoic
Name 2 types of Sensory Memory Iconic and Echoic
Last 10-15 seconds and can hold about 7 plus or minus two items. Short Term Memory
It is needed for across different aspects even academically like doing math problems, reading comprehension. You need to be able to keep some information in mind while continuing to process new information. Working Memory/Short-Term
Information from sensory memory gets into working memory or short term memory by __________ _____________. Selective Attention
Practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short-term memory Maintenance Rehearsal
Information in the Short-Term Memory is usually ______/________. Verbal/Auditory
A method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way Elaborative Rehearsal
Lasts from about twelve to thirty seconds without rehearsal and is succeptible to interference. Short-Term Memory
The system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently Long-Term Memory
Refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Explicit/Declaritive Memory
Involves learning an action, and the individual does not know or declare what she knows Implicit/Non-Declaritive Memory
A neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories into long term memories. Hippocampus
The changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed Consolidation
A neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories. Cerebellum
Semantic or Episodic events Explicit Memory
Skills and Conditioning Implicit Memory
After losing his Hippocampus in surgery HM can remember anything before but cannot make new memories. This is called _____ ________. Anterograde Amnesia
HM is now unable to make new _________ memories but can make new _______ memories. Explicit, Implicit
The person must retrieve information using effort Recall
The person has to identify an item amongst others Recognition
Getting something out of Long Term Memory into Working Memory Retrieval
Bits of related information we encode while encoding a target piece of information (they become part of the web) Retrieval Cues
To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you first need to activate one of the strands that lead to it, a process called ____________. Priming
Memories are held in storage by a _____ ___ ____________. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Web of Associations
The tendency for memory to be improved if related information(surroundings or physiological state) that is available when the memory is formed is also available when the memory is retrieved Context Effect
Scuba Divers remembering words underwater and a baby kicking a mobile are bot examples of _______ ________. Context Effect
Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. Deja Vu
Memories formed during a particular physio or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state Dependent Learning
Inability to retrieve information, due to: Poor encoding Storage decay Retrieval failure Forgetting
True or False: Forgetting is helpful. True
With _______ ________ the ideas is that if the information never gets in – or does not get into memory in a sufficient way – we will not be able to later retrieve that information Encoding Failures
Although the information is retained in the memory store it cannot be accessed from Long Term Memory Retrieval Failure
When you can almost remember something but can't quite get the information out. TOT (Tip Of Tongue) Phenomenom
Learning some information may disrupt retrieval of other information Interference
previously learned information interferes with new information. Proactive Interference
new information interferes with old information. Retroactive Interference
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. Misinformation Effect
Asking people to describe details of the noisy woman who left class and some people giving incorrect information is an example of? Misinformation Effect
When retreiving memories from LTM we _________ them using new and old information. Construct
Attributing an event to the wrong source we have experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution). Source Amnesia
A condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic experience sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists. False Memory Syndrome
the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event Hindsight Bias
Studying repeatedly, rehearsing, making material personally meaningful and making mneumoice devices are all ways to: Improve Memory
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others Cognition
mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality Mental Images
ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities Concepts
General concepts are __________. Superordinate
Specific concepts are ___________. Subordinate
Specific Rules are _________. Formal Concepts
Experiences are __________. Natural Concepts
an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept Prototype
First thing that comes to mind Most representative example Develops as result of exposure The best example all of these are examples of: Prototypes
process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways Problem Solving
Name 3 Problem Solving Methods Trial and Error, Algorithms and Heuristics
(mechanical solution): problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found Trial and Error
very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems Algorithms
an educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; also known as a “rule of thumb” Heuristic
estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples Availability Heuristic
assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category Representative Heuristic
Name 3 types of Heuristic Availability, Means-end Analysis & Representative
heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference Means-end Analysis
sudden perception of a solution to a problem. “Aha!!!” Insight
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions Functional Fixedness
the tendency to search for evidence that fits one’s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs Confirmation Bias
the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways Creativity
type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic Convergent Thinking
type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point Divergent Thinking
the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems Intelligence
______________ is a concept NOT a trait. Intelligence
the ability to reason and solve problems; general intelligence G-Factor
the ability to excel in certain areas; specific intelligence S-Factor
LIMB LINES = ? Linguistic, Intrapersonal, Musical & Bodily Logical, Interpersonal, Naturalistic, Existential, and Spatial
Sternberg’s theory that there are three kinds of intelligences: practical, analytical and creative (PAC) Triarchic Theory
the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving Analytical Intelligence
the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems Creative Intelligence
the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful Practical Intelligence
a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one’s mental age by one’s chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100 Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Who developed the IQ System? Stanford Binet
__________ age/________ age (100) = IQ Mental/Chronological
measures overall intelligence, and in addition 11 other aspects related to intelligence designed to assess clinical and educational problems WAIS
are intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill Aptitude Tests
are intended to reflect what you have already learned. Acheivement Tests
People with an IQ less than 70 are ______ _______. Intellectually Disabled
People with an IQ greater than 130 are ________. Gifted
is the ability to perceive, understand and use emotions Emotional Intelligence
involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison. Standardizing a test
What kind of distribution does a standardized test establish? Normal. Bell-shaped. Normal Curve
When a test yields consistent results it is: reliable
The degree to which a test actually measures what it’s supposed to measure or predict. Validity
An open and symbolic communication system that has rules of grammar and allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas Language
Spoken language is built of basic speech sounds, called : Phonemes
elementary units of meaning, called: Morphemes
a system of rules that enables us to communicate with others Grammar
refers to the rules we use to derive meaning from the morphemes Semantics
refers to the rules we use to order words into sentences. Syntax
the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language Cognitive Universalism
Created by: taylortrahan13