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The Study of Minorities

Afrocentrism A viewpoint emphasizing African culture and its influence on Western civilization and U.S. black behavior. p. 14
Ascribed status One’s socially defined, unchangeable position in a society based on such arbitrary factors as age, sex, race, or family background. p. 10
Cultural relativism A view of the customs and beliefs of other peoples within the context of their culture rather than one’s own. p. 12
Dillingham Flaw Any inaccurate comparison based on simplistic categorizations and anachronistic judgments. p. 16
Dominant group Any culturally or physically distinctive social grouping possessing economic, political, and social power and discriminating against a subordinate minority group. p. 11
Emigration Act of leaving one’s country or region to settle in another. p. 9
Endogamy The tendency for people to marry only within their own social group. p. 10
Ethnicity A cultural concept in which a large number of people who share learned or acquired traits and close
Social construction of reality The process by which definitions of reality are socially created, objectified, internalized, and then taken for granted. p. 19
Social distance The degree of closeness or remoteness one desires in interaction with members of a particular group. p. 5
Social identity theory Holds that ingroup members enhance their self
Symbolic interaction The use of symbols—such as signs, gestures, and language—through which people interact with one another. p. 19
Values Socially shared conceptions of what is good, desirable, and proper or bad, undesirable, and improper. p. 15
Acculturation The process by which a group changes its distinctive cultural traits to conform with those of the host society. p. 24
Chain migration A sequential flow of immigrants to a locality previously settled by friends, relatives, or other compatriots. p. 30
Contact hypothesis Friendship with outgroup members corresponds to lower prejudice to that group. p. 38
Convergent subcultures A subgroup gradually becoming completely integrated into the dominant culture. p. 30
Cultural determinism A theory that a group’s culture explains its position in society and its achievements or lack thereof. p. 36
Cultural differentiation Differences between cultures that make one group distinguishable from another. p. 36
Cultural diffusion The spread of ideas, inventions, and practices from one culture to another. p. 29
Cultural transmission The passing of a society’s culture from one generation to another. p. 28
Culture The values, attitudes, customs, beliefs, and habits shared by members of a society. p. 24
Culture of poverty A controversial viewpoint arguing that the disorganization and pathology of lower
Culture shock Feelings of disorientation, anxiety, and a sense of being threatened when unpreparedly brought into contact with another culture. p. 30
Economic determinism A theory that a society’s economic base establishes its culture and general characteristics. p. 36
Ethnic stratification Structured inequality of different groups with different access to social rewards as a result of their status in the social hierarchy. p. 38
Ethnic subcultures Ongoing lifestyles and interaction patterns separate from the larger society that are based on religious or other cultural group memberships. p. 30
Ethnogenesis A process in which immigrants hold onto some homeland values, adapt others, and adopt some values of the host country. p. 30
Linguistic relativity The recognition that different languages dissect and present reality differently. p. 26
Marginality The situation of individuals who are the product of one culture but are attempting to live within another, and therefore are not fully a part of either one. p. 31
Material culture All physical objects created by members of a society and the meanings/significance attached to them. p. 24
Nonmaterial culture Abstract human creations and their meanings/ significance in life. p. 24
Norms The internalized rules of conduct that embody the fundamental expectations of society. p. 24
Occupational mobility Ability to change one’s job position with regard to status and economic reward. p. 37
Paternalism A condescending treatment of adults, managing and regulating their affairs as a father would handle his children’s affairs. p. 39
Persistent subcultures A subgroup adhering to its own way of life and resisting absorption into the dominant culture. p. 31
Social class A categorization designating people’s places in the stratification hierarchy on the basis of similarities in income, property, power, status, and lifestyle. p. 32
Social stratification The hierarchy within a society based on the unequal distribution of resources, power, or prestige. p. 32
Social structure The organized patterns of behavior in a social system governing people’s interrelationships. p. 24
Structural assimilation Large
Thomas theorem An observation that if people define situations as real, the situations become real in their consequences. p. 28
Created by: hiphop8004
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