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SLS 20 Test #1

SLS 20: Psychology Test #1

Functionalism William James' focus. The study of understanding the purpose/function of mental processes. Contrast to Structuralism: examines the structure of mental processes.
Psychology The scientific study of mind and behavior
Mind Our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings
William James "Father of Psychology." Wrote Principles of Psychology
Behavior Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
fMRI Scan Allows scientists to scan a brain and see which parts are acive
Structuralists Philosophical view to try and analyze the mind by breaking it down into its basic components
Functionalists Philosophical view to try and focus on how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environment
Nativism Plato's philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
Philosophical Empiricism Aristotle's philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience
Descartes v. Hobbes Mind =/= Body v. Mind = Body
Phrenology Specific mental abilities are located in specific regions of the brain. One could tell whether a person was friendly, cautious, etc. based on the size of bumps on the skull (poster)
Physiology The study of biological processes (ex. the speed of nerve impulses)
Stimulus Sensory input from the environment
Reaction Time The amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus
Broca's Area In left side of the brain
Wundt Opened the first laboratory ever exclusively devoted to psychological studies. Believed psychology should focus on analyzing consciousness and structuralism
Consciousness A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
Structuralism The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind (focus on structure & break down elements/sensations/feelings)
Introspection The subjective observation of one's own experience
Hysteria A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences
Freud Theorized that patients' problems could be traced to the effects of painful childhood experiences that the person could not remember. Revealed the presence of an unconscious mind
Unconscious The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness, but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions
Psychoanalytic Theory Freud's approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
Psychoanalysis Freud's therapeutic approach that focused on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness in order to better understand psychological disorders. Patients recall past experiences and relate their dreams and fantasies
Humanistic Psychology Contrasting Freud's approach. This positive therapy viewed people as free agents who have a need to develop and grow. "Blossoming of the spirit"
Pavlov Experiment with dogs (stimulus-response)
Stimulus A sensory input from the environment
Response An action of physiological change evoked by a stimulus
Reinforcement The consequences of behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again (Skinner's rats and food tray)
Behaviorism The study of behavior (Skinner's rats)
Illusions Errors of perception (Ex. The Mueller-Lyer Line Illusion)
Behavioral Neuroscience An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes
Cognitive Neuroscience A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity
Evolutionary Psychology A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved by natural selection
Social Psychology How others affect an individual (competition)
Cultural Psychology How cultures reflect and shape psychological processes of their members
Dogmatists Greek doctors who thought the best way to understand an illness was to develop a theory about the body's function
Empiricists Greek doctors who thought the best way to understand an illness was to observe sick people
Empiricism The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
Scientific Method A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence
Theory A hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
Hypothesis A falsifiable prediction made by a theory
Empirical Method A set of rules and techniques for observation
Operational Definition A description of a property in concrete, measurable terms
EMG A device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person's skin
Validity The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related
Reliability The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
Demand Characteristics Those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should
Naturalistic Observation A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environment
Mode The value of the most frequently observed measurement
Mean The average value of all the measurements
Median The value that is "in the middle"
Neurons Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks
Neuron Structure 1. Cell Body (nucleus, chromosomes, DNA) 2. Dendrites 3. Axon
Dendrites The part of the neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body (they look like tree branches)
Axon The part of the neuron that transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands. One axon/neuron. Axon is covered with a Myelin Sheath, composed of Glial Cells.
Myelin Sheath Covers the Axon. An insulating layer of fatty material
Glial Cells Support cells found in the nervous center. Makes up the Myelin Sheath (which covers the axon)
Synapse The gap between the axon and one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron
Sensory Neurons Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey the information to the brain via the spinal cord
Motor Neurons Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord tot he muscles to produce movement
Interneurons Neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, and other interneurons
Resting Potential The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane. Creates the environment for a possible electrical impulse. Arises from the difference in concentration of ions inside/outside the neuron's cell membrane
Action Potential An electric signal that is conducted along a neuron's axon to a synapse
Refractory Period The rest period after action potential
Nodes of Ranvier Gaps where the Myelin Sheath does not cover the axon
Saltatory Conduction When an electric current passes the length of a myelinated axon and the charge jumps from node to node
Terminal Buttons Branch out from the axon and contain neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites
Receptors Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate/prevent a new electric signal
Agonists Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter
Antagonists Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
Nervous System An interacting network of neurons that convey electrochemical information throughout the body
Central Nervous System The part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and the spinal chord. Receives information from the external world, processes the information, and sends commands to the skeletal/muscular systems for action
Peripheral Nervous System The part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles
The Somatic Nervous System A set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system. Humans have conscious control over this system and use it to perceive, think and coordinate their behaviors.
The Autonomic Nervous System A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands
Sympathetic Nervous System A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state
Spinal Reflexes Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions (ex. the pain-withdrawal reflex)
Hindbrain An area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
Medulla Part of the hindbrain. Coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration.
Reticular Formation Part of the hindbrain. Regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal
Cerebellum Part of the hindbrain. Controls fine motor skills
Pons Part of the hindbrain. Relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
Forebrain Controls cognitive, emotional, and motor functions
Cerebral Cortex The outermost layer of the brain; two hemispheres
Subcortical Structures Areas of the forebrain under the cerebral cortex near the center of the brain
Thalamus A subcortical structure that relays/filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex. Input from all senses (except smell)
Hypothalamus A subcortical structure that regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior
Pituitary Gland A subcortical structure. A "Master Gland" of the body's hormone-producing system.
The Limbic System A group of forebrain structures: hypothalamus, amyglada, hippocampus.
Hippocampus A part of the limbic system, critical for creating new memories and filing them into a network of knowledge
Amyglada A part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, formation of memories (attaches significance to these memories)
Corpus Callosum A thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres
Occipial Lobe A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
Parietal Lobe A region of the cerebral cortex that processes information on touch
Temporal Lobe A region of the cerebral cortex that processes information on hearing and language
Frontal Lobe A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, planning, memory, and judgement
Heritability A measure of the variability of behavioral traits among individuals that can be accounted from genetic factors
EEG A device used to record electrical activity in the brain
MRI Applying a brief but powerful magnetic pulse to the head and recording how these pulses are absorbed throughout the brain
PET A harmless radioactive substance is injected into a persons bloodstream and the brain is scanned
Created by: omoseley