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241 Radiobio Unit 2

241 Radiobiology Unit 2

All living things are made up of this thick, viscous suspension substance that constitutes the physical basis of all living activities Protoplasm
Protoplasm exhibits what 6 properties 1) Assimilation,2)Growth,3)Motility,4)Secretion,5)Irritability, and 6)Reproduction
Smallest unit of protoplasm capable of independent existence is the Cell
Groups of cells that perform the same basic activity are called tissues
What are the 4 types of tissues 1)Epithelial,2)Connective,3)Muscular, and 4) Nervous
Groups of tissues that work in close association and perform a specialized function are called Organs
A _____ is the next higher level of organization and consists of a group of organs that work together to perform a common function System
A _____ is a person, dog, or bird and is the highest level of organization Organism
All radiation damage is at the ______ or _____ level Cellular or subcellular
Protoplasm consists of organic compounds mainly these 3 Carbon,Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Inorganic compounds are what Salts, Water, and minerals
Inorganic compounds and organic compounds are both _____ or ____ in water suspended or dissolved
Water is the most common substance inside the cell and makes up ____ to ____% of all its content 70 to 85%
Water has many functions in a cell what are they(3) 1)holds and transports substances,2)chemical activities, and 3) temp buffer
If a cell has to much water in it there is a possibility of what Rupture
Moving water in and out of the cell is done though ____ osmosis
Osmotic pressure is determined by the concentration of what indie and outside the cell mineral salts or solutes
A solution causing a cell to shrink is considered _____ hypertonic
If too many solutes/mineral salts are inside the cell then the cell will swell this is called ______ hypotonic
Having osmotic pressure equal to that of the circulating blood is called ____ or _____ isotonic or isomotic
Mineral compounds also prevent _____and salts aid in the production of energy as well as in the conduction of ____impulses cramping, nerve
What are the 4 major classes of organic compounds in a cell Proteins, lipids, carboyhydrates, and nucleic acids
____are macromolecules or polymers proteins
Large molecules formed by joining together simple units is known as _____ into long chains monomers
Proteins make up about ____% of a cell 15%
List the 4 functions of proteins 1)building of new tissue,2)repair of injured or broken town tissue,3)intercellular messengers, and 4)composition of enzymes
Enzymes are what large protein molecules that control the speed of most chemical reactions inside the cell
Antibodies are made of _____ Proteins
There are about ____ amino acids found in nature but only ____are essential to humans 80, 20
Proteins building blocks are _____ ____ Amino acids
Amino acids consist of a carbon atom surrounded by an _____ ____(NH2), a _____ ___(COOH) and a side group (R) Amino group, carboxyl group
Which of the following is the cause for an amino acid to be different from another amino acid 1) Carbon atom 2) Amino Group 3) Carboxyl Group or 4) Side Group(R) 4) Side group
Lipids are also known as _____ Fats
Lipids make up about ____% of a cell on average 2
When cells take in more energy than it needs it stores it as what Fat/Lipids
____molecules are what cells usually gets its energy Sugar
Lipids are soluble in water, True or False False-Lipids are soluble in alcohol, ether, oil and chloroform NOT water
What are the 5 functions of Lipids 1)Energy Storage,2) Integral component of cell membrane,3)Protection against cold/heat, 4) Assistance in digestive processes and 5) Components of substances such as hormones
Carbohydrates make up about ___% of a cell 1
______ provides most of the cells energy and are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are stored throughout the body but primarily in the ___ and ____ Liver and Muscles
Carbohydrates hae a large number of _____-_____ bonds and release large amounts of energy when they are broken through metabolism Carbon-Hydrogen
Carbohydrates have a ratio of _:_:_ 1:2:1
What are the 3 Classifications of Carbohydrates 1)Monosaccharides,2)Disaccharides,3)Polysaccharides
______ is glucose or fructose and the primary source of energy for a cell Monosaccharides
______ is sucrose, lactose and maltose are not easily metabolized and are a storage from of energy that can be readily be converted into simpler forms Disaccharides
_____ is starches, dextrin, cellulose and glycogen and consist of long chains of complex carbohydrates Polysaccharides
_____ ____ are macromolecules that are the blueprint for reproduction of the cell,protein synthesis, transport mechanism and control metabolism and reproduction Nucleic Acids
What are the 2 types of nucleic acids DNA and RNA
What are the 2 major sections of a cell Cytoplasm and Nucleus
Organelles are structures inside the nucleus, true or false false organelles are outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm
____ ____ is a limiting structure, it actively and passively regulates the flow of all substances into and out of the cell Cell membrane
____ ___ ____ produces proteins for export outside the cell Rough(Granular) Endoplasmic reticulum
____ ____ ___ synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids and is involved in detoxification Smooth (Agranular) Endoplasmic Reticulum
____ ____ Divides cell into subunits, concentrates and packages secretory products, participates in carbohydrate synthesis and the binding of other organic compounds to proteins Golgi Body or Apparatus
______ contains enzymes capable of recycling old organelles by breaking down proteins, carbohydrates and lipids Lysosome
____ Provides energy to cell through oxidation, also involved in protein synthesis Mitochondria
____ Synthesizes and releases proteins in response to messenger RNA Ribosome
_____ directs cellular activity and also transmits genetic info DNA
______is linear thread that contains DNA Chromosome
____is a basic unit of heredity, located on a chromosome Gene
____ ____ contains nuclear material and allows only some proteins and RNA to pass though Nuclear Membrane
_____ Contains most of the RNA Nucleolus
_____ controls protein synthesis and transfers amino acids to ribosome and also assists in RNA reproduction RNA-mRNA, tRNA and mRNA
The function of the nucleus is to contain the ____ and ______ info of the cell genetic and metabolic
The nucleus contains what 4 components 1)nuclear envelope,2)chromosomes,3)nucleolus,and 4) nuclear sap-the liquid portion of a cell nucleus
The nuclear membrane is a Double or Single walled structure Double
The nuclear envelope has a space between the walls this space is contiguous or connected to the space between the membranes of the endoplastic reticulum. True or False True
The nuclear envelope has areas where the two walls are pinched together to form ____ ____ nuclear pores
Nuclear pores are filled with proteins that allow some materials to pass b/t the cytoplasm and the nucleus while preventing other materials. True or False TRUE
What are the only 2 known material that can pass though the nulclear envelope Proteins to be incorporated into the nuclear structure and various RNAs
Chromosomes are composed of ______ and ______ protein and deoxyribonucleic acid *DNA*
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases of DNA needed for encoding information necessary to control the metabolism and reproduction of a cell Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
DNA consists of what 3 major components 1)Deoxyribose-a sugar backbone, 2) Phosphoric acid-a phosphate backbone and 3) 4 nitrogenous bases-the actual genetic code
Adenine and guanine are considered _____ and Thymine and cytosine are ______ purines and pyrimidines
Adenine must always bond with Thymine b/c both of them have a _______ bonding mechanism 2 hydrogen
Guanine must always bond with cytosine because they both have a _____bonding mechanism 3 hydrogen
The backbones of DNA are made up of what 3 things sugar, deoxyribose and phosphoric acid
DNA backbones create a twisting ladder effect and this is called ____ ____ double helix
Genes are found in Pairs also known as ____ and determine the character of the organism in one of two ways Allels
Gene pairs that match are termed _______ while pairs that do not match are called _______ homozygous and heterozygous
Genes can be ____ or ____ in the expression of a trait Dominant or recessive
23 pairs of chromosomes is called _____ diploid or 2n
23 chromosomes in a cell is called _____ haploid
Gametes or reproductive cells have ____ number chromosomes 23
Somatic cells have ___ number chromosomes 46
The nucleolus is composed of ________ which controls protein synthesis in all living cells and is similar to DNA in structure Ribonucleic acid or RNA
RNA differs from DNA in what ways (3) 1) RNA sugar is Ribose as opposed to deoxyribose in DNA and 2) the base uracil replaces tymine, and 3) RNA is a single helix instead of a double helix
_____carries the code for specific amino acid sequences from the DNA to structures in the cytoplasm messenger RNA or mRNA
____ transfers amino acid groups to the ribosome for protein synthesis transfer RNA or tRNA
____ exists in the ribosome and is thought to assist in protein synthesis ribosomal RNA or rRNA
All metabolic functions occur in the _____ cytoplasm
There are 2 types of metabolic functions what are they Anabolism—building up and Catabolism—breaking down
The cell membrane is composed of _____ and ____ lipids and proteins
The cell membrane is the limiting structure and is analogous to the skin of an organism, True or False TRUE
the lipids in the cell membrane create a ______ walled structure with the long “tails” of the lipids touching each other two
Proteins in the cell wall help transport substances though the cell wall allowing for a regulation or _____ _____ selective permeability
____ ____ on the outside of the cell membrane trigger a reaction inside the cell when it comes into contact with a specific molecule such as a hormone receptor proteins
____ ____ on the outside of a cell membrane identify the cell as being a specific type of cell Marker proteins
_______ are extremely small portions of the submicroscopic structure of a cell that functions to synthesize proteins Ribosomes
Ribosomes are made up of several forms of rRna and proteins, True or False TRUE
DNA sends info on how to produce a protein to the ribosome via _______ mRNA
The Endoplastic Reticulum is made up of a ____ bilayer with embedded proteins similar to the cell membrane Lipid
Rough ER is considered ______in nature and has many _____ attached to it Granular, Ribosomes
Rough ER is devoted to the production of _____ protein
Smooth ER is considered ____ in nature and does not have any of these attached Agranular, Ribosomes
Smooth ER has many types of enzymes embedded into the membrane that are used to build carbohydrates and lipids and to detoxify some substances found in the cell, True or False TRUE
Mitochondria do not contain their own DNA. True or False FALSE-mitochondria do contain their own DNA and is used to produce the proteins necessary to release energy from sugars
Energy that is provided through catabolic processes is known as ____ which breaks the carbon-hydrogen bonds of sugar oxidation
This Muscle contains the greatest number of mitochondria in its cells which one is it. Cardiac or heart muscle because of its large need of energy
Lysosomes are sometimes called this Suicide sacs
If a lysosome sac ruptures it will not harm the cell, True or False FALSE- if the sac ruptures then it will kill the cell
Somatic cells go through ______ a type of cell division Mitosis
Somatic cells have 5 basic phases that they go through what are they Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
Mitosis has 4 phases what are they Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
During this phase the cell is considered resting or in a state of metabolic function what is it Interphase
Interphase is divided up into 3 subphases what are they G1, S and G2
In the subphase S of interphase what is the cell doing DNA replicates but stays attached to the centromere
A Centromere is what a clear region in the middle of each chromosome
When the number of chromosomes in a cell has doubled in S phase it is called what Tetrad
In G2 phase what is the cell doing organelles are reproduced, chromatids reproduce and DNA coils tightly together
These types of cells undergo Meiosis Germ or reproductive cells
During meiosis the mother cell divides into 2 daughter cells with 23 pairs of chromosomes then divides again into 4 cells with 23 chromosomes each. True or False TRUE
Cells that are dividing abnormally are called what Malignant
Malignant cells differ from normal cells in 2 whys what are they Increased amount of Chromatin and increased ratio of nuclear material to cytoplasm
When cancer cells break off and spread to other portions of the body this is called metastasize
Radiobiology is the merging of what 2 scientific disciplines Radiologic Physics and Biology
Radiobiology by definition is a branch of science that deals with what the modes of action and the effects of ionizing radiation on living matter
This famous scientist observed the emission of rays from uranium containing material who was he Henri Becquerel
Radioactivity was coined by who Marie Curie
What year did Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium 1898
What is the name of a reddening of the skin after exposure to Radiation Erythema
Loss of hair is called Epilation
Who was the first person to die in the U.S. due to Radiation exposure Clarence Dally
In short what does the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau state That immature or rapidly dividing cells are the most radiosensitive
There are 2 types of biologic effects due to ionization processes in tissues what are they Direct Effects and Indirect Effects
_____ effects the DNA of a cell Direct
_____ effect causes a reaction with the water of a cell Indirect
______ is the name of the process of the formation of free radicals in water radiolysis
______ is the process of dividing a radiation dose into several small doses given over a time period Fractionation
Ionizing radiation can cause “radiounique” mutations. True or False FALSE- any type of damage caused by ionizing radiation can also be caused by heat, chemicals, or mechanical trauma
In 1956 a Doctor named Puck successfully cultured mammalian cells in an artificial media what type of cells where they Carcinoma of the Uterine cervix of a human pt.
What is the name of the carcinoma cells that were the first to be cultured artificially HeLa
In 1987 the NCRP reconfirms that ___mSv as annual permissible dose and redefines lifetime allowable dose as ___________ 50mSv(5Rem) and 1Rem X Age of operator
The average percent of squares that will be hit by radiation photons is 63%-this means that given a # of squares or targets and an equal number of photons being shot at the targets. Of the # of squares 63% of them will be hit.
Effects inside the cell due to a chain of events can be very difficult to determine what exactly is going on in each step because of the high almost instantaneous speeds that it happens. True or False TRUE
Radiation interactions with cells can be one of 2 things what are they Ionization or Excitation (excitation is where 1 or more electrons is pushed into a higher energy state*suborbit* from which the q)
Biologic changes occur only after a ________ during which no evidence of damage is present Latent period
Direct Action *direct effects* that hit the DNA of a cell have High or Low LET High LET as such with Fast neutrons
When Radiolysis occurs in a cell the water molecule is broken down into what chemical composition HoH+ and e-
A _____ is a single unpaired electron Free Radical
When free radicals interact in water then it creates hydroxyl atoms which combine with water creating Hydroperoxyl radicals which is the basics of _______ Hydrogen peroxide
LET is the rate at which the energy of the radiation was transferred to tissue True or False TRUE
When LET goes up SI goes up or down UP
RBE stands for Relative biologic effectiveness
RBE compares the biological damage of one type of radiation to what 250kvE of xrays to produce the same effect
What is a dose-response curve a graphical representation of the relationship between the amount of radiation absorbed(dose) by a cell and the amount of damage(response) seen
Response curves are either ____ or ____ where there is a proportional or non proportional relationship between dose and response Linear or Nonlinear
Non linear curves are also called what (3) 1)curvilinear, 2) sigmoid, or 3) linear-quadratic
Response curves are either _____ or ____ depending on the level or lack of level damage or no effect is observed Threshold or Nonthreshold
There are 4 types of dose response curves name all 4 1) Linear Nonthreshold, 2) linear Threshold, 3) Nonlinear Nonthreshold and 4) Nonlinear threshold
A Nonlinear Nonthreshold curve looks like what Where the line is curved and it starts at the 0,0 location on an xy graph
_________ means a random in nature effect Stochastic effect
A linear nonthreshold dose response curve can be summarized as (4) 1)No threshold, 2)severity of effect is directly proportional to dose, 3)No reduction in effect at small dose rates 4) Exhibits a stochastic or statistical response
Nonlinear Threshold dose response curve have the following characteristics 5 1)Usually has a threshold, 2) partial recovery from lower doses 3)decreased response at lower doses 4)there is atleast a plateau and probably a downward turn at high doses, 5) Exhibits nonstochastic behavior
Nonlinear Nonthreshold dose response curves have the follow characteristics 4 1) No threshold, 2)linear response at low dose levels, 3) quadratic response at high dose levels 4) exhibits the stochastic or statistical effect
Stochastic and _____ mean random in nature Statistical response
Deterministic effects increase in severity with dose and a threshold is assumed true or false True
Deterministic effect is sometimes called certainty effects True or False TRUE
_____ means that the dose of radiation is not enough to kill a cell and the cell has a chance to recover from the damage sublethal
The Oxygen effect is what The more Oxygen in the cell the more damage that is done to the cell
OER stands for what Oxygen enhancement ratio
OER is the ratio of the amount of radiation damage done when oxygen is present compared to the amount of damage when oxygen is not present. True or False TRUE
Most biologic damage occurs as a result of a _____ of the chromosomal backbone Breakage
The backbone of DNA is made up of _____ and _____ Sugar and phosphates
When one backbone breaks in a DNA strand it is called a ____ _____ Point mutation
When both backbones break in a DNA strand it is called a ____ ____ frameshift mutation
Point mutations are more common with Low or High LET radiation LOW-they are associated with a greater chance for repair
The rate of cancer increases with exposure to radiation this is known as a ______ effect carcinogen
This involves a portion of the arm of the chromosome being snapped off this is called a _______ effect One break
If a broken portion of the chromosome is called a ______ deletion
If the deletion (broken chromosome) does not reattach it is called a ____ ____ terminal deletion
If a chromosome break reattaches in an inverted position it is called a ____ inversion
If the broken chromosome reattaches to another chromosome other than the original then it is called a _____ duplication
When there is 2 breaks in a chromosome this is called a ____ ____ effect two break
This is similar to terminal deletion except that two segments are produced Interstitial deletion
______ is similar to inversion in one break effects except that two segments break off invert and reattach Inversion
_____ is one or both segments attach to another chromosome duplication
When 2 chromosomes exchange segments is ______ translocation
Acentric fragments are what when 2 fragments attach themselves to each other and have no centromeres
Dicentric fragments are what when 2 fragments attach themselves to each other and have 2 centromeres
Acentric fragments are a loss of genetic information that can lead to cell alteration or death, true or false TRUE
The doughnut shaped mutation in chromosomes is called Ring chromosome
There are 5 characteristics of radiation mutation what are they 1) germ sell mutation has an effect on future generations and somatic mutation effect on the individual 2)effects are nonspecific 3)mutations are undesirable 4)effects cumulative 5)A threshold exists
The ____ _____ states that there are areas on the DNA chain that if damaged are lethal to the cell Target Theory
What are the 3 possible target theories 1) single target/single hit 2)single target/multiple hit or multiple target/single hit 3)multiple target/multiple hit
The cell survival curve represents what the percentage of cells not killed by various doses of radiation
With complex cells like human cells it is thought that atleast one hit to at least two targets is needed to what the cell Kill
The cell survival curve for humans has a shoulder at high doses, True or False FALSE the shoulder is at LOW doses
What are the 3 classifications of cell types Stem, Transit and Static
Stem cells exist to __________ and ___________ for another population self-perpetuate and produce
Transit cells are cells in _______ to another population movement
Static cells are cells that are fully ______ and do not exhibit ______ activity differentiated and mitotic
VIMs are what Vegetative intermitotic tissue cells-Rapidly dividing undifferentiated and have a short lifetime (basal cells and Crypt cell of intestines)
DIMs are what Differentiating intermitotic cells- produced from VIMs very actively mitotic and relatively undifferentiated by more differentiated then VIM cells(Type B spermatogonia)
MCTs are what Mulipotential connective tissue cells-highly differentiated cells that still divide but do so irregularly(blood vessels)
RPMs are what Reverting postmitotic cells-do not normally divide but can do so under some situations (liver cells)
FPMs are what Fixed postmitotic cells-highly differentiated and do not divide at all (Nerve cells)
Parenchyma is what part of an organ functional tissue
Stroma is what part of an organ broadly defined as connective tissue and vasculaure that supports the organ parenchyma
Organs that are highly sensitive to radiation and show responses quickly are considered ______ _____ _____ acutely responding oragns
Organs that are not as sensitive to radiation and do not show response to months later are called _____ _____ ______ late responding organs
Lymphoid tissue shows signs of hypoplasia following doses of ____ to ____ 200 1000rads
Cornea of the eye and the liver demonstrate effects with doses of ____ to _____ 1000 to 5000 rads
Muscle, brain and spinal cord show effects at ______ 5000rad
The 4 R’s of Radiation Therapy Recovery, repopulation, reoxygenation, and redistribution
Early Effects refers to effects that occur _____ after radiation exposure soon
Acute radiation syndromes involve what 3 things full body exposure, high dose, short amount of time
What is the concept of 50% of the population dieing within 30 days called LD50/30
What are the 3 lethal syndromes Hematologic Syndrome, Gastrointestinal Syndrome, CNS syndrome
Prodromal means what “running before” meaning 1st phase of a disease
The _____ phase is when there is no manifested symptoms latent
The _____ phase is when symptoms occur Manifested
What are the 4 phases of a syndrome Prodromal, Latent, Manifested and Recover/death
The LD50/30 value for humans is what 250-450+ Rads
______ ______ is a bone marrow or hematopoetic syndrome that causes a decline in RBC, WBC, and platelets Hematologic Syndrome
Hematologic Syndrome has a effect range from ____ to ____ 100 to 1000
Diminished supply of bloody cells is called Pancytopenia
Created by: Ravann