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Pharm test 2 - NC State

Describe Assessment. The process of gathering information about the patient, problem, and factors that may influence the drug being given.
What is passive diffusion? molecules move with concentration gradient from higher concentration to lower concentration. No energy needed.
What is facilitated diffusion? molecules move with the concentration gradient using a carrier molecule. No energy is needed.
What is active diffusion? Molecule moves against the concentration gradient, from lesser to greater concentration. This requires a carrier molecule and energy is expended.
Pharmacokinetics - describe. The study of what the body does to a drug from the time the drug enters the body to the time it leaves the body.
Pharmacodynamic - describe. the study of what a drug does to the body.
Pharmaceutics - describe. study of how various forms of drugs influence pharmacokinetics/dynamics.
Name the four phases of pharmacokinetics. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion.
Describe absorption. The drug molecule enters circulation.
Describe distribution. The drug molecule moves around the body.
Describe metabolism. The drug molecules are changed into metabolites.
Describe excretion. The drug molecules are excreted from the body.
Describe onset. The time that the drug begins to work.
Describe peak. The point at which the drug is in highest concentration.
Describe duration. The point at which the drug ceases to work.
Absorption is affected by.... route, foods/fluids given, dosage, status or absorptive surface, rate of blood flow to small intestine, stomach acidity, GI motility.
What is bioavailability? The degree to which the drug is absorbed into general circulation; amount of drug available to go to the cite of action.
What is the first-pass effect? The drug must first pass through the liver before it reaches systemic circulation.
Bound drugs are.... attached to plasma proteins and unable to exert pharmacological activities.
Free drugs are... not attached to plasma proteins; able to exert pharmacological activity, be metabolized, and excreted.
Water soluble drug small volume of distribution and high blood concentration
Fat soluble drug large volume of distribution and low blood concentration
Blood-brain barrier stops many drugs from crossing into CNS
placental barrier some drugs do not cross - only drugs that do not cross are safe for pregnant women to take.
Metabolites... usually water soluble so they can be excreted by the kidneys
Active metabolites capable of exerting pharmacological activity
Inactive metabolites incapable of pharmacological activity
Receptor interactions attach to receptor cite to elicit or block a response
Enzyme interaction interferes with the reaction of an enzyme that regulates a body function
Stimulate body functions speeds up some part of the body
depress body functions slows down some part of the body
replace body substance replacement therapy, such as hormone replacement
destroy cells antibiotics, antineoplastics
Iatrogenic response unintentional adverse side effect caused by physician or treatment
idosyncrasy odd response
teratogenic causes a birth defect
mutagenic causes changes in genetic makeup
Synergistic drug interactions include... additive, displacement, potentiation, interference
Additive 2 drugs with the same effect combine to double said effect
displacement one drug kicks another drug off of a plasma protein, increasing the effect of the displaced drug
potentiation 2 drugs with different actions combine and the effect is more than doubled
interference one drug interferes with the metabolism or excretion of another drug, increasing the bioavailability.
Antagonistic drug interactions include... decreased absorption, antidote, and enzyme induction
Decreased absorptions drugs bind and form insoluble complexes to decrease effect of both drugs
antidote Drug molecules compete for receptor cites, eliminating the effects of one drug
Enzyme induction decreases bioavailibity of the drug or bothdrugs
What is pharmacogenetics? the study of how genetic differences influence a persons drug response
What is the umbrella term> Pathological use of a substance for purposes other than what it was intended for.
Created by: 1131703004



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