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Nervous System

What is the central nervous system made up of -Brain -Spinal Cord
What is the peripheral nervous system made of includes all of the cranial and spinal nerves
What are the two types of cells nervous tissue is made of -Neurons (nerve cells)-transmit impulses and transmits info in and out -Neuroglia-support and nourish neurons
Describe the cell body of a neuron Contains nucleus and other organelles; control center of neurons
Describe the dendrite of a neuron Receive signal from sensory receptors or other neurons; conducts info to cell body
Describe an Axon Conducts nerve signals away from cell body
What is myelin It's a lipid coating that insulates and help speed impulse conduction Formed by Schawann cells in PNS Formed by aligochondrocyte in CNS
What is a nerve Bundle of parallel axons in the PNS
What is a tract bundle of parallel axons in the CNS
Name and Describe the two types of neurons Motor (efferent) neurons -Take nerve impulse from the CNS to muscle, organs, or glands -Multi-polar Sensory (afferent) neurons -Take nerve impulse from sensory receptors to the CNS -Detects stimili -Almost all are unipolar
Describe what interneurons are -all in the CNS -connect incoming sensory pathways with outgoing pathway
In Impulse Conduction explain what a membrane potential is When ions with opoosite eletrical charges are separated by a membrane, the potential exist for them to move toward one another
What does it mean for a cell membrane to be polarized? -positively charge on the outside -negatively charged on the inside
Name and briefly describe the 5 phases in the process of impulse -Resting Potential - inactive and polarize -Depolarization - Na enters;(-)>(+) -Action Potential - more Na enters -Repolarization - K flows out of the cell; balance is restored (+)>(-) -Refractory - Na exits K enters
Axon terminal Small swelling at top of the branched end of the axon
Parts of the Synapse Presynaptic- membrane of the first neuron Postsynaptic- membrane of the next neuron Synaptic cleft - small gaps between the pre and postsynaptic neuron
Functions of the spinal cord -Provides communication between the brain and rest of the body -Reflexes
Describe the Gray matter of the of the Spinal cord -Contains cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers -H-shaped - divided into 2 sets of hohrns -Posterior (dorsal) horn -Anterior (ventral) horn
Describe the White matter of the Spinal cord -Contains myelinated axons -Contains bundles of axons called tracts that carry impulse from one part of NS to another
Describe posterior white matter Composed of ascending tracts carrying sensory information to the brain
Describe anterior white matter Composed of descending tracts carrying motor info from the brain
What is epidural space Small space that lies between the outer covering of the spinal cord and the vertebra
What is the central canal Carries cerebralspinal fluid through the spinal cord
what is cerebrospinal fluid Clear tissue fluid that forms a protective cushion around and w/in the CNS Also found in and around the brain
Describe the 3 meninges of the CNS Dura mater - out meninx composed of tough fibrous connective tissue Arachnoid mater - middle meninx composed of spiderweb-like connective tissue pia mater-the deepest meninx
What are the 3 ascending tracts and generally what do they do Ascending tracts convey sensory signals up the spinal cord and to the brain -Dorsal column -Spinocerebellar tract -Spinothalamus tract
Functions of dorsal Column Relays sensation, tactile discrimination, vibration, deep pressure, create awareness of the body's position
Functions of Spinocerebellar Tract Awareness of the body's position
Functions of Spinothalamus tract Relays sensations of temperature, pressure,pain, and touch
Two descending tracts and generally what do they do Conduct motor impulses down the spinal cord to skeletal muscle -Corticospiral tract -Extrapyramidal tracts
Function of Corticospiral tracts Responsible for fine move't of hands and fingers, feet and toes on opposite side of the body
Function of Extrapyramidal tracts Groups of tracts associated with balance and muscle tone
What are the four major regions of the brain? -Cerebellum -Diencephalon -Cerebrum -Brain stem
Describe the make up of the brain gray matter - Froms suface of brain. Covers cerebrum and cerebellum in a layer call the cortex -White matter-under gray matter;contains bundles of axons that connect one part of the brain to another part
Where is cerebral spinal fluid found? The ventricles
What are functions of the Cerebrum Voluntary motor responses; coordinates the activities of the other parts of the brain; involved in higher thought processes
Functions of the Frontal Lobe Governs voluntary movement, memory, emotion, social judgement, decision making, reasoning and aggression and personality
Function of the Temporal Lobe Controls hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior, and visual recognition
Parietal Lobe Receives and interprets sensations; controls proprioception, interprets taste (interprets senses)
Occipital Lobe Analyze interprets visual information
Insula Plays a role in perception, motor control, self awareness, and cognitive function.
The primary motor area Located in the frontal lobe. Controls voluntary command to the opposite side
The primary somatosensory area -Parietal lobe -Receives sensory from the skin and skeletal muscle on the opposite side of the body
Somatic sensory association area -pinpoit locations of pain, identify texture, and proprioception
Limbic System -part of the cerebrum and diencephalon -emotion and learning -formed by complex structure that encircle the corpus calisum and thalamus -links lower brain stem to the cortex
Two structures of limbic system --Hippocampus-converts short-term memory into long term memory --Amygdala-emotion, stores and recalls emotion from the past.
Cerebrum Language -Written words -translates written words into spoken words -written words stimulate the primary visual cotex -The angular gyrus translate
Wernicke's area formulate the words into phrases that comply with learned grammatically rules
Brocas' area plans mm movement's required of the larnyx, tongue cheeks and lips to forms words then sends the approp. impulses to the primary motor cortex
The primary motor cortex sends impulse to the mm necessary to pronounce words
Association? -Interprets smell -interprets and sensation of taste -recognize familiar objects And all is located in what lobe -Offactory association area -Primary gustatory complex -Visual association Parietal
Association? -sight (size,color, light),motion, dimension -recognize familiar sounds -hearing -Primary visual cortex -Auditory association -Priamry auditory complex
Olfactory type and function -sensory -receptors sense of smell
Optic -Sensory -Retina for sense of sight
Oculomotor -Motor -Eye muscles (including eyelids and lens); pupil
Trochlear Motor -eye muscles
Trigeminal sensory -Teeth,eyes,skin,and tongue Motor -Jaw muscles
Abducens Motor -eye muscles
Facial Sensory - Taste buds of anterior tongue Motor - Facial muscles and glands
Vestibulochlear Sensory-inner ear for sinse of balance and hearing
Glossopharyngeal Sensory -pharynx Motor -phayngeal muscles, salivary glands
Vagus -Sensory-internal organs, external ear canal, eardrum, back of throat Motor -Internal organs, throat muscles
Spinal accessory Motor -neck and back muscles
Hypoglossal Motor - tongue muscles
Frontal lobe impairments -contralateral weakness -perseveration, inattention -personality changes, antisocial behavior -impaired concentration, apathy -Broca's aphasia (expressive deficits) -Delayed or ipoor initiation -emotional lability
Parietal lobe impairments -dominant hemisphere, agraphia,alexia, agnosia -non-dominant hemisphere, deressing apraxia, constructional apraxia, anosognosia -contralateral sensory deficits -impaired language comprehension -impaired taste
Temporal lobe impairments -learning deficits -Wernicke's aphasia (receptive deficits) -antisocial, aggressive behaviors -difficulty with memory, memory loss -inability to categorize objects
Occipital lobe impairments homonymous hemianopsia impiared extraocular muscle movement and visial deficitis -reading and writing impairment
Hippocamupus located in the temporal lobe; forming and storing memories; learning language
Basal ganglia Voluntary movement, regulation of autonomic movement, posture, muscle tone, and control of motor responses. Parkinson's and Huntington's disease
Amygdala located in the temporal lobes; emotional and social processing, memory
Thalamus A relay or processing station for information that goes to the cerebral cortex. Coordinates sensory perception and movement
Hypothalamus Receives and integrates information from the ANS and assist in regulating hormones. Controls functions such as hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and sleeping. Regulates body temperature, the adrenal glands, and pituitary gland.
Created by: ckdabne
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