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Psychology 7 Chapter

Early School Age (4-6 years)
Developmental Tasks: Gender identification, Early moral development, Self-theory, Peer play
Gender Identification Differentiation between concepts of sex, gender, and sexual orientation.
Sex: biologically linked features or distinctions.
Gender: integrated cognitive, social, and emotional schemes associated with being a male or a female.
Sexual Orientation: one's preference for and attraction to sexually intimate partners.
Essential Differences Perspective gender differences reside within the individual, as persistent, internal attributes.
Constructivist Perspective gender differences are socially constructed
Model of gender identification focuses on four components: Understanding the concept of gender, Learning gender role standards and stereotypes, Identifying with parents, Forming a gender preference
Understanding Gender Understanding gender emerges in a developmental sequence from toddlerhood through early school age.
Understanding Gender Applying correct gender labels to self and others, Understanding gender is stable, Understanding gender is constant, Understanding genital basis of gender,
Gender Role Standards Gender role standards are cultural expectations about appropriate behavior for boys and girls, and for men and women.
Identification The process through which one person incorporates the values and beliefs of another.
Identification with Parents Ideals, values, and standards of the family and community are internalized.
Gender Preference Development of a personal preference for activities and attitudes associated with masculine and feminine roles.
Gender typicality: children can assess whether they fit in with others of the same sex.
Contentedness: children like being the sex that they are.
Gender preference depends on three factors: The more closely one’s strengths and competencies approximate gender-role standards, the more one will prefer being a member of that sex.
Gender preference depends on three factors: (cont)... The more one likes the same-sex parent, the more one will prefer being a member of that sex. Environmental cues as to the value of one sex or the other.
Review Gender Role Identification Table 7.1 in powerpoint slides
Learning theory: Moral behavior and the process of internalization are viewed as a response to environmental reinforcements and punishments.
Social Learning Theory: Moral behavior results from the observation of models.
Cognitive Learning Theory: Emphasis on the child’s active construction of moral reasoning.
Piaget: transition from heteronomous to autonomous morality.
Kohlberg: three levels of moral thought: Preconventional (Stage 1), Conventional (Stage 2), and Postconventional (Stage 3) morality.
Review the Stages in the Development of Moral Judgment Table 7.2 in power point slides
Psychoanalytic Theory: Morality as the ability of children to control their impulses and resist temptations.
Moral Sense... Develops as a result of strong parental identification
Classical psychoanalytic theory... Viewed the superego as an internalization of parental values and moral standards.
Evolutionary Theory: Emotional or affective, as well as cognitive, aspect to morality.
Empathy: sharing the perceived emotion of another.
Hoffman has four levels of empathy: Global empathy, Egocentric empathy, Empathy for another’s feelings, Empathy for another’s life conditions
Perspective taking: Cognitive capacity to consider a situation from the point of view of another person.
Four elements determine the impact of these techniques on the child’s future behavior: 1) Discipline should help the child interrupt or inhibit the forbidden action 2) Discipline should point out a more acceptable form of behavior
Four elements determine the impact of these techniques on the child’s future behavior: (cont)... 3) Discipline should provide some reasons why one action is inappropriate and the other more desirable 4) Discipline should help the child to empathize with the victim
Review Processess Chart Table 7.3 in power point slides
Self Theory Gender identification and moral development are components of the child’s self-concept. Self-concept links the child’s understanding of the nature of the world, the self, and the interactions between the two.
Self Theory (cont).. The function of self-theory is to make transactions between the self and the world turn out as positively and beneficially as possible.
Me: the self as object Physical self, Active self, Social self, Psychological self
I: the self as subject Continuity, Distinctiveness, Agency
Infancy: self consists of one’s independent existence
Toddlerhood: self-theory grows through active process of self-differentiation
Early school-age: self-theory becomes more differentiated
Middle childhood: self-theory shifts to comparative assessments
Self-Theory: Culture and Self-theory Culture shapes the value placed on certain attributes, as well as how children think of the self
Self-Theory: Theory of Mind From ages 4-6 children become aware that people have different points of view
Self-esteem or self-evaluation is based on three sources: Messages of love, support, and approval from others. Specific attributes and competencies. The way one regards these specific aspects of the self in comparison with others and in relation to one’s ideal self.
Peer Play: Group Games New form of play involves group games that are more structured and have more basis on reality versus fantasy. They involve more cognitive complexity, physical skill, and ritual, and allow peer cooperation.
Friendships Are based on the exchange of concrete goods and the mutual enjoyment of activities.
Peer Play: Friendship Groups Conflicts among friends tend to occur because children tend to evaluate situations on the basis of outcomes rather than intentions. Young children tend to prefer same-sex friends.
Girls Enjoy dyadic (two-person) interactions over larger groups.
Boys Prefer to play in larger groups.
The Psychosocial Crisis: Initiative versus Guilt (early school aged)
Initiative: An expression of agency; children impose themselves and their ideas and questions onto their social world.
Guilt: An emotion that accompanies the sense that one has been responsible for an unacceptable thought, fantasy, or action.
The Central Process: Identification Identification is the central process in the resolution of the conflict between initiative and guilt. Identification with parents results in strengthening the child’s personality.
What is the difference between imitation and identification? External behavior versus internal representation.
Purpose: Thought or behavior with direction, and therefore with meaning.
Inhibition: The restraint or suppression of behavior.
Created by: mr209368