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what are the functions of the vertebral column -encloses and protects spinal cord -supports -provides muscle attatchments
how many total vertebrae are there in early life 33
how many true moveable vertebrae are there 24
which vertebral segments are false sacral and coccygeal
how many vertebrae are in each vertebral segment -7 cervical -12 thoracic -5 lumbar -5 sacral(fused) -4 coccygeal(fused)
what happens at the SI joints lower extremities are connected to vertebral column
convex/lordotic curve anterior/outward curve
concave/kypotic curve posterior/inward curve
dawagers hump extreme kyphosis
sway back extreme lordosis
what are the primary curves -thoracic -pelvic
what are the secondary curves -cervical(developed at about 3 months) -lumbar (developed at about 9-12 months)
kyphosis a condition of increased kyphotic curve
Lordosisis a condition of increased lordotic curve of L spine
Scoliosis a condition of abnormal lateral curvature of spine
Vertebral disc make up how much of the height 1/4 "
Nucleus pulposus Gelatin like, soft mass core of vertebral disc
Annulus fibrosus outer, fibrocartilaginous disk, very strong
HNP Herniated nucleus pulposus, Slipped Disk
formed by two pedicles and two laminae Vertebral Arch
vertebral arch supports what four articular processes(two superior and two inferior), two transverse processes, and one spinous process
what is another name for the articular processes zygopophysis process
pedicles project from __________ posterior part of body
laminae project ________ and ________ from _________ -postriorly -medially -pedicles
transverse processes project ____________ and _________ from juction of laminae and pedicles -laterally -a little posteriorly
spinous process projects _________ and ________ from junction of both laminae -posteriorly -inferiorly
spina bifida congenital condition in which laminae fail to fuse
articular processes articulate with _______ above and below junction of pedicles and laminae and form __________ joints -vertebrae -zygopophyseal
what are the two main parts of a typical vertebrae body and vertebral arch
the open space that is formed by the body and vertebral arch is called what vertebral foramen
articulation of vertebral foramina forms what vertebral canal
notch on underside of pedicle vertebral notch
describe a typical cervical vertebrae -small -oblong -transversely located bodies -there are foramina located on transvers processes -short, bifid spinous process
how many typical cervical vertebrae are there 4(C3-C6)
which are the atypical cervical vertebrae C1, C2, and C7
transverse foramina are also referred to as_______ foramen transverse
articular pillars area between the inferior and superior articular processes of a cervical vertebrae (also called pars interarticularis)
what is unique about C1 and what is its other name -has no body -aka atlas
what is unique about C2 and what is its other name -has a conical process called a dens or odontoid that protrudes upward through the middle of C1 -aka axis
what is unique about C7 has a longer spinous process called vertebra prominens
the zygopophyseal joints of C2-C7 are at _______ angles or ______ degrees to MSP and are demonstrated best in what projection -right angles or 90 degrees to MSP -demonstrated bes in lateral projection
the intervertebral foramina of the cervical region are directed ________ at a _____ degree angle from msp -anteriorly at a 45 degree angle
what must be done to both tube and pt to see the intervertebral foramina of the C-spine -angle CR 15 degrees cephalic and rotate pt 45 degrees
what does C1 or the atlas vertebrae consist of -anterior and posterior arch -two lateral masses -two transverse processes -no vertebral dody
the arch of C1 is divided into anterior and posterior portion by _________ transverse antlantal ligament
anterior portion of arch of C1 receives _______ odontoid process of C2
posterior portion of arch of C1 is where _______ passes proximal portion of the spinal cord
what is found on each lateral mass of C1 superior and inferior articular processes
the superior articular processes of C1 receives the _______of ________ forming what joint -condyles -occipital bone -forms atlantoocipital joint
the transverse processes of C1 are ___________ than other cervical vertebrae, and project _______ and slightly ________ from lateral masses -longer and laterally slightly inferior
what does C2 or the axis consist of -conical process called a dens or odontoid,which is received by the anterior portion of C1 - -superior articular processes on each side of dens, which join inferior articular processes of C1 to form 1st zygopophyseal joint
what is the 1st zygopophyseal joint called lateral atlanto-axial joint(best seen in AP projection or zero degrees from msp)
inferior articular processes of C2 have same direction as C3-C7 and are best seen in waht projection lateral
what movement does the atlantoocipital joint permit nodding
what movement does the medial atlantoaxial joint permit rotation of head
which vertebrae occupy the posterior thorax thoracic
describe a typical thoracic vertebrae -triangular in shape -costal facets on posterior and lateral side of body for articulation with head of ribs -facets on transverse processes for articulation with tubercle of ribs(except for T11 and T12) -lamina are brod and thick -long spinous proces
describe a t-typical thoracic vertebrae cont. -spinous process of T1-T4 and T10-T12 angle down less that T5-T9 -zygopophyseal joints of T-spine are best seen 70-75 to msp -intervertebral foramina are best seen in lateral projection(90 degrees to msp)
jugular notch is at what level T2-T3
sternal angle is at what level T4-5
xiphoid is at what level T9-10
which segment of vertebrae are the largest a strongest lumbar(increase in size from 1st to 5th)
lunbar vertebrae occupy the ________ abdominal region posterior
what are some features of the lumbar vertebrae -smallest vertebral foramen -transverse process smaller that T-spine -large, thick and blunt spinous process -mammilary process=smooth rounded process on back of superior articular process -accessory process at back of root of transverse process
pars interarticularis part of lamina between the superior and inferior articular process in T and L spine
zygopophyseal joints of Lspine are best seen at what angle -upper lumbar 60 degrees -mid lumbar 45 degrees -lower lumbar 30 degrees -45 degrees is best for whole lumbar
intervertebral foramina of L1-L4 are at what angle from msp 90 degree or at a right angle to msp
what are some characteristics of the 5th lumbar vertebrae -deeper in front than behind -wedge shaped for better articulation with sacrum(disc between L5-S1 is also wedge shaped) -spinous process is shorter and smaller -transverse process is much thicker than upper lumbar vertebrae
intervertebral joint between two vertebrae(cartilageonous)
defect or destruction of pars interarticularis spondylolysis
spondololisthesis slipping forward of one disc in front of another caused by spodylolysis
what level is the illiac crest at L4-L5
what level is the umbilicus L3-L4
what level is transpyloric plane L1
dura matter outer strong fibrous tissue
arachnoid cobb webby layer
subarachnoid space space between arachnoid and pia
pia innermost, transparent layer that adheres to brain and spinal cord
fusion fused together
hemivertebra half vertebrae
occulta and manifesta forms of spina bifida(manifesta is more severe)
scaralization 5th lumbar fuses to 1st sacral segment
lumbarization 1st sacral segment doesnt fuse to rest of sacrum
sacrum is formed by __________ fusion of sacral segments into curved, triangular bone
where is sacrum located inferior to lumbar region and wedged between iliac bones of pelvis forming sacroiliac joints of each side
sacrum consist of what -body -lateral masses -ala -base -lumbosacral junction -promontory -superior articular surface -apex -canal -sacral hiatus -foramina -cornu
promontory protrudes out on front of sacrum
superior articular surface of sacrum articulates with inferior articular process of L5
canal of sacrum continuation of spinal canal
sacral hiatus end of sacral canal
cornu two processes, one on each side of hitus
male sacrum typically longer, narrower, more evenly curved and more vertical in position
female sacrum typically more acutely curved;greatest curvature in th lower half of the sacrum; lies in a more oblique plane; sharper angle at the junction of the lumbar an pelvic curves
coccyx is triangular in shape and formed by what fusion of three to five rudimentary vertebrae
coccyx curves__________ and __________ from articulation with sacrum inferiorly and anteriorly
anatomic features of coccyx -base -apex -cornu(process at base of coccyx)
coccyx is less anterior for males or females females
Created by: bigad1982