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MHE405

CHAPTER 5

QuestionAnswer
Transfer of training - trainees effectively and continually applying what they learned in training to their jobs.
Generalization a trainee’s ability to apply learned capabilities to on-the-job work problems and situations that are similar but not identical to those problems and situations encountered in the learning environment.
Knowledge management process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge.
Maintenance process of continuing to use newly acquired capabilities over time.
Training design the characteristics of the learning environment.
Trainee characteristics include ability and motivation that affect learning.
Work environment includes factors on the job that influence transfer of training.
Key behaviors set of behaviors that can be used successfully in a wide variety of situations.
Application assignments work problems or situations in which trainees are asked to apply training content to solve them.
Learning organization is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change
Elements of training design that support transfer Design based on transfer theory Design based on appropriate knowledge sharing method Offer self management module Make technological support available, if applicable Get managers to accept and help create action plans for use of learned capabilities
Identical elements theory Relies on similarity between what’s learned in class and what must be performed on the job: The more identical you can make the elements, the better training will transfer.
Identical elements theory Fidelity – how similar the training environment is to the work environment Near transfer – trainees’ ability to apply learned capabilities exactly in the work environment
Identical elements theory Good for stable environments Be specific about concepts & procedures Explain expected differences between training environment and work environment Making sure they know which differences are important and which aren’t
Stimulus generalization approach Focus training on just the most important features or principles and how to apply them: Generalize = apply information to dissimilar scenario.
Stimulus generalization approach For use when work environment is not similar to training environment : Far transfer – trainees’ ability to generalize learned capabilities in the work environment even when it’s not similar.
Stimulus generalization approach To use: Figure out which behaviors are key. During training, make people model the behaviors in a range of situations
Cognitive theory of transfer Learning rests on trainees’ ability to retrieve information at the right time Make material meaningful to increase the chances they will remember it
Cognitive theory of transfer Provide mnemonics and other memory aids Use Application assignments – work problems in which trainees are asked to apply training content to solve them.
Four modes for sharing knowledge: Socialization: : Sharing experiences with others disseminates habits and priorities through observation, imitation and practice
Four modes for sharing knowledge: Externalization : Helping people assign words to concepts through metaphors, models, equations, etc.
Four modes for sharing knowledge: Internalization Traditional learning process (memorization and rehearsal)
Four modes for sharing knowledge: Combination Organizing explicit concepts into a system
Self-management Learning you undertake to control or influence your own behavior and decision-making.
self-management Trainees need to take responsibility for learning and transfer which includes: preparing for training. being involved and engaged during training. using training content back on the job.
Self-management A best practice is to supply a module on self-management as part of the training
What’s in a self-management module? = a lesson on how to make best use of the material when you get back to your job. Be clear on exactly what skills are targeted for transfer: Make them measurable. Discuss resources to ensure transfer of skills: Manager, trainer, other trainees
What’s in a self-management module? Discuss lapses Identify situations when they are likely to happen, and discuss ways to recover from them Factors contributing to lapses Low self-efficacy, setting priorities, self-monitoring, self-rewards, lack of support network.
Technological support: Electronic performance support systems (EPSSs) computer applications that can provide, as requested, skills training, information access, and expert advice.
Technological support: Electronic performance support systems (EPSSs) It may be used to enhance transfer of training by providing trainees with an electronic information source that they can refer to on as needed while they attempt to apply learning on the job.
Technological support Trainers can monitor trainees’ use of EPSS, which provides the trainer with valuable information about the transfer of training problems that trainees are encountering. These problems might relate to the training design or work environment.
Action plan written document that includes the steps that the trainee and manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job.
Action Plan includes: a goal identifying what training content will be used and how it will be used. strategies for reaching the goal. strategies for receiving feedback. expected results.
Action Plan It provides a progress check schedule of when the manager and trainee meet to discuss the progress being made in using learned capabilities on the job.
Opportunity to perform Opportunity to use learned capabilities or opportunity to perform refers to the extent to which the trainee is provided with or actively seeks experiences that allow for application of the newly learned knowledge, skill, & behaviors from the trainin prog
Opportunity to perform Opportunity to perform is determined by breadth, activity level, and task type.
Opportunity to perform Low levels of opportunity to perform may mean: the work environment is interfering with using new skills. training content is not important for the employee’s job.
Opportunity to perform Influenced by the work environment and trainee motivation.
Climate for transfer = trainees’ perceptions about a wide variety of characteristics of the work environment that facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behavior. Manager and peer support. Opportunity to use skills. The consequences for using learned capabilities.
Characteristics of a positive climate for transfer of training Managers and peers set goals for trainees to use new skill (action plan). Task cues in work environment: Prompts to remind them to use new stuff. No punishment for trying new things.
Characteristics of a positive climate for transfer of training Extrinsic reinforcement consequences Get raise for using skills well Managers notice if trainees are using skills and give positive feedback for use
Features of a learning organization: Supportive learning environment: People feel safe expressing thoughts, asking questions, disagreeing, admitting mistakes Different perspectives are valued People are encouraged to review company’s processes People are encouraged to try things
Features of a learning organization: Learning processes and practices: Organization pays attention to knowledge creation, dissemination, application There are systems for creating, capturing and sharing knowledge
Features of a learning organization: Managers reinforce learning Learning is rewarded and promoted Time devoted to learning, dialog, debate
Effective knowledge management Training and information technology collaboration. Create knowledge management leadership positions. Provide ease to use technology for employees to access and share information within the context of their job.
Effective knowledge management Ensure employee trust and willingness to share information by recognizing and promoting employees who learn, teach, and share.
Ways to create and share knowledge Use technology, e-mail, and social networking sites or partais on the company intranet. Publish directories. Develop informational maps.
Ways to create and share knowledge Allow employees to take time off from work to acquire knowledge, study problems, attend training, and use technology.
Ways to create and share knowledge Design office space to facilitate interaction between employees. Create chief information officer and chief learning officer positions for cataloging and facilitating the exchange of information in the company.
Ways to create and share knowledge Get employees to give presentations to other employees about what they have learned from training programs they have attended.
Ways to create and share knowledge Create communities of practice: face-to-face meetings, wikis, or blogs for employees with a common interest in a subject.
Ways to create and share knowledge Use “after-action reviews” at the end of each project to review: What happened? What can be learned from it?
Ways to create and share knowledge Create an online library of learning resources such as journals, technical manuals, training opportunities, and seminars.
Manager support: = the degree to which managers: emphasize the importance of attending training programs. stress the application of training content to the job.
Manager support: Managers have an incentive to pay attention to the development of their staff: Achieving their own goals (financial, productivity, strategy) may require training and development for their staff
Getting managers’ support Provide a brief on the purpose of the program and its relationship to business objectives and strategy. Identify manager’s goals (for the department and for their own careers) and show how training their staff would help them reach these goals
Getting managers’ support Get them to agree to make action plan for use with trainees If possible, use managers as trainers.
How to increase peer support Create a support network - group of trainees who meet and discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job. Can be in person or via internet. The more peer meetings that trainees attend, the more learning is transferred to the workplace.
How to increase peer support Use newsletter – show how trainees are successfully dealing with transfer of training issues. Provide a mentor (a more experienced employee who can provide advice and support related to transfer of training issues)
Created by: annette1816