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Chapter 4

Learning Theories Motivation theories Reinforcement theory Social learning theory Goal theories Need theories Expectancy theory Information processing theory Adult learning theory
Reinforcement Theory People are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors. Processes: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, punishment.
Reinforcement Theory The trainer: Identifies what outcomes the learner finds most positive and negative. Links these outcomes to acquiring specific knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors.
Reinforcement Theory Can incentivize learning -- Withhold or provide job-related, personal, and career-related benefits to learners who master program content.
Social Learning Theory Observing and mimicking people who seem credible Only if they are credible and knowledgeable
Social Learning Theory Learning new skills or behavior comes from: directly experiencing the consequences of using a behavior or skill, or the process of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior.
Self-efficacy and social learning SE = a person’s judgment about whether he or she can successfully learn knowledge and skills Can be increased by: verbal persuasion, logical verification, observation of others (modeling), accomplishments Mastery experiences (Bandura)
Goal setting theories: Conscious goals & intentions direct behavior: Direction of energy and attention Choice, effort, persistence What will you focus on? How much energy will you put into it? How long will you keep it up?
Goal setting theories Strategies for goal attainment Challenging high goals SMART goals
Achievement Goal Theory: Goal orientation: the goals held by a trainee in a learning situation.
Achievement Goal Theory: Learning orientation : trying to increase ability or competence in a task.
Achievement Goal Theory: Performance orientation : learners who focus on task performance and how they compare to others.
Goal Orientation Affects motivation (Attention, energy, persistence).
Goal Orientation Learning orientation  learning as value in itself Intrinsically motivated – motivated to learn the parts they are interested in but doesn’t care much about hitting benchmarks (eg. tests, grades, licensing, promotions)
Goal Orientation Performance orientation  learning as a means to end Extrinsically motivated – motivated to perform well on benchmarks but doesn’t care much about really “getting” it
Need: a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time
Needs theories The major difference between Alderfer’s and Maslow’s hierarchies of needs is that Alderfer allows the possibility that if higher-level needs are not satisfied, employees will refocus on lower-level needs.
Needs theories McClelland’s need theory focuses primarily on needs for achievement, affiliation, and power.
Needs Theories: Best practices for training: identify trainees’ needs communicate how training program content helps them fulfilling these needs
Needs Theories If certain basic needs of trainees are not met, they are unlikely to be motivated to learn Hygiene factors
Expectancy theory: Expectancies: the link between trying to perform a behavior and actually performing well.
Expectancy theory: Instrumentality a belief that performing a given behavior is associated with a particular outcome.
Expectancy theory: Valence the value that a person places on an outcome. Also called VIE (even though it’s EIV)
Information Processing Theory It gives more emphasis to the internal processes that occur when training content is learned and retained.
Information Processing Theory It highlights how external events influence learning, which include: Changes in the intensity or frequency of the stimulus that affect attention.
Information Processing Theory It highlights how external events influence learning, which include: the learner of the objectives to establish an expectation. Enhancing perceptual features of the material (stimulus), drawing the attention of the learner to certain features.
Information Processing Theory Verbal instructions, pictures, diagrams, and maps suggesting ways to code the training content so that it can be stored in memory.
Information Processing Theory Meaningful learning context (examples, problems) creating cues that facilitate coding. Demonstration or verbal instructions helping to organize the learner’s response as well as facilitating the selection of the correct response.
The Learning Process The learning cycle involves four stages: Concrete experience Reflective observation Abstract conceptualization Active experimentation
Elements of the Learning Process: Instruction: trainer’s manipulation of the environment in order to help trainees learn.
Elements of the Learning Process: training context: the physical, intellectual, and emotional environment in which training occurs.
Elements of the Learning Process: Practice physical or mental rehearsal of a task, knowledge, or skill to achieve proficiency in performing the task or skill or demonstrating the knowledge.
Age and learning Trainers need to be aware of trainees’ ages to create a learning environment and develop materials that meet their preferences.
Age and learning “Generations” study suggests that there are four generations of employees with distinct attitudes toward work and preferred ways to learn. Millenniums (or Nexters), Gen Xers, baby boomers, and traditionalists.
Good Training Objectives Clear idea of what the trainee is expected to be able to do after training Measurable standards of performance The resources that the trainee needs to perform the action or behavior The conditions under which the action is expected to occur
Features of Good Instruction That Facilitate Learning Learning Objectives: People need to know why. Meaningful content. Practice opportunities. Mnemonics or other ways to remember. Observation & experience. Social interaction. Meaningful feedback. Good instructors and coordination.
The Learning Process: Metacognition : - individual control over one’s thinking: Monitoring, control
The Learning Process: Advance organizers : Stuff that helps trainees organize the information that will be presented and practiced: outlines, texts, diagrams, graphs
The Learning Process: Overlearning: Continuing to practice even after being able to perform the objective several times.
The Learning Process: Error management training : giving trainees opportunities to make errors during training; provides the opportunity for trainees to engage in metacognition.
Practice & Feedback: Practice should be related to objectives: massed, spaced, in whole, or in part.
Practice & Feedback Feedback: information about how well people are meeting the training objectives should be provided as soon as possible after the trainees’ behavior.
Observation & practice Employees learn through observation, experience, and interacting with others.
Observation & practice: Communities of practice : groups of employees who work together, learn from each other, and develop a common understanding of how to get work accomplished.
Learning outcomes Internal conditions = psychological aspects that need to be in place before learning can happen External conditions = elements of the learning environment (including types of classroom activities)
To train: Verbal info Labels, facts and propositions. Internal conditions: Previously learned knowledge and verbal information Strategies for coding info into memory External conditions: repeated practice: Meaningful chunks Advance organizers Recall cues
To train: Intellectual Skills = knowing how Internal conditions: none External conditions: Link between new and previously learned knowledge
To train: Cognitive strategy = Decision making process
To train: Cognitive strategy Internal conditions: Recall of prerequisites, similar tasks, and strategies External conditions: Verbal description of strategy Demonstration of strategy Practice with feedback Variety of tasks that provide opportunities to apply strategy
To train: Motor Skills = Muscular actions Internal conditions: Recall of past skills Coordination program External conditions: Practice Demonstration Gradual decrease of external feedback
To train: Attitudes General positive or negative orientation toward something. Internal conditions: Mastery of prerequisites Identification with model Cognitive dissonance
To train: Attitudes External conditions: Demonstration by a model Positive learning environment Strong message from credible source Reinforcement
Created by: annette1816
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