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Chapter 3

Why do a needs assessment? Make sure training is the right solution to a performance problem Make sure training programs have the right content, objectives, or methods
Why do a needs assessment? Keep trainees from being sent to programs without the skills or confidence needed to learn Without it, may not get results
What problems might training solve? New circumstances: New workers, new products, new jobs/roles Response to strategy: Poor performance or customer request Response to regulation: Legislation, certification, higher performance standards
Steps in organization analysis Overarching question: Is training the right solution? Have to state problem as it is currently understood by upper management
Steps in organization analysis Analyze situation from organization, person and task perspectives: Gather and analyze data Determine appropriate training methods: Delivery, evaluation
Key questions to answer in report What is the problem? Is training the right solution? What outcomes can we expect from training? How should training be evaluated? Should we buy it or build it? How shall we deliver it? How can we facilitate transfer (make sure people actually use it
Next steps: Gather data Use multiple data collection methods: (we’ll get to methods in a minute) Collect data from people at multiple levels: Upper & middle management Job incumbents (the people currently holding the affected jobs)
Organization analysis questions Upper-level mgmt questions: How does training support our business strategy? Mid-level mgmt questions: Do I want to spend money on training? How much? Trainer questions: Will managers support training?
Person analysis: Do employees have the personal characteristics necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job? Will the work environment will facilitate learning vs. interfere with performance?
Person analysis – find out current situation on: Person characteristics: Basic skills (cognitive ability, reading level) Self-efficacy; Awareness of need for training Input: What, how and when to do things; situational constraints (want to perform but can’t); opportunity to perform; social support
Person analysis – find out current situation on: Output: Expectations for learning and performance Consequences: What are the norms, benefits, rewards of performing Feedback: How frequently do they get it? Level of detail?
Person analysis questions Upper-level mgmt questions: What do employees need to know to accomplish our business objectives?
Person analysis questions Which functions/areas need training? Mid-level mgmt questions: Which roles should be trained (managers, tech, line…)? How ready are they for training (ability, attitudes, beliefs, motivation)
Person analysis questions Trainer questions: How will I identify which employees need training?
Is training the right solution? Is problem important? Does it affect bottom line? Do employees already know how to perform? No training vs. had training and don’t use it?
Is training the right solution? Were expectations clear? Were there incentives for performance? Did they get good feedback? Were other solutions better? (job redesign, etc.) TRAINING IS ONLY BEST SOLUTION IF PROBLEM= SKILL DEFICIT!
If it’s not lack of skills, maybe it’s: Role clarity: Were performance expectations clear? Were there any obstacles to performance such as faulty tools or equipment?
If it’s not lack of skills, maybe it’s.....Motivation: Were positive consequences offered for good performance? Was good performance not rewarded?
So you’ve decided to go ahead with training… On to task analysis! Then outcome evaluation methods! And soon, design!
Task analysis questions: Upper-level mgmt questions: Do we have people with the KSAs needed to compete in the marketplace?
Task analysis questions Mid-level mgmt questions: In which jobs can training make the biggest difference in product or service quality? Trainer questions: What do people need to know (eg. tasks, KSAs, or other characteristics)?
Task Analysis 3 main questions in task analysis: How often is it performed? How important is it? How difficult is it?
Task analysis process::Process: Select job to be analyzed Use data collection methods to develop list of tasks performed on job Confirm preliminary set of tasks with SMEs (job incumbents, managers, etc.) Then ask them the 3 questions: This is best done as survey with numerical rati
Competency model Identifies competencies necessary for each job AND the underlying skills, attitudes, values, or other personal characteristics In other words: what you do, and what allows you to do that
competency model more general, describes the whole occupational, group, and connects to business strategy.
Job Analysis More specific, Describes job only, and used for selection
Data collection methods Observation, Questionnaires/surveys, Interviews, Document review, Focus groups, Tech-based observation (software)
Observation Pros: Generates data relevant to job and environment Minimal interruption Cons: Needs skilled observer Hawthorne effect
Questionnaires Pros: Inexpensive Can survey large numbers of people Data easily summarized Cons: Takes a lot of time Low response rates are possible Lack of detail Your answers are only as good as your questions
Interviews Pros: Uncover all the details of training needs and causes of behavior Can explore unanticipated emerging issues Cons: Time consuming & hard to schedule Hard to analyze Need skilled interview People may only tell you what they think you want to hea
Focus groups Pros: Good for complex or controversial issues that might make one-on-one uncomfortable Can explore unanticipated issues
Focus groups Cons: Time-consuming, hard to organize Tell you what they think you want to hear Power differences among participants  everyone shuts up and plays it safe
Tech-based observation/metrics Pros: Objective Minimal work interruption Lessens observer effects Cons: Threatening to employees Hard not to punish employees if negative info is found Only works for certain computer or phone-based tasks
Best practices for data collection more than one method. Benchmarking – using information about other companies’ training practices to help determine the appropriate type, level, and frequency of training. aka copying the competition
If it’s performanceDid employees receive timely, relevant, accurate, constructive, and specific feedback about their performance? If not, there will be surprise and opposition
If it’s performanceWere other solutions such as job redesign or transferring employees to other jobs too expensive or unrealistic? These solutions can be effect, cheaper and more popular with workers
Motivation and self-efficacy Increasing motivation and self-efficacy enhances the utility of training
Self-Efficacy:Employees’ self-efficacy level can be increased by: Letting employees know the purpose of training Providing as much information as possible about the training program and the purpose of training before training starts.
Increasing self-efficacy And by: Showing employees successful peers who completed the training. Making employees understand that learning is under their control – they can do, and they need to do it.
Best practices for increasing motivation Before starting the program, provide whatever will help employees use the new skills and behavior: materials, time, job-related information, etc.
Best practices for increasing motivation Enlist support from the managers and work group: Employees know both the boss and their coworkers support their behavior change
Created by: annette1816
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