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Test 2 - NRAD

Thoracic & Lumbar Normal Variants

QuestionAnswer
T/F SBO can be single or multiple, clean smooth line or asymmetric, and can be at any level? true
At what level is SBO most common, and in males or femaliens? Most common at L5 & S1, most common in males 9:1 ratio
What are short lucent transverse lines in mid portion of vertebral body? Hahn's Venous Clefts. The are most common in lower thoracic spine and may be single or multiple
What is a focal herniation (lucency) of the nucleus pulposus through the vertebral endplate outlined by a smooth, well-defined, sclerotic rim? Schmorl's Node. they can occur anywhere along the AP diameter of the endplate, usually found near the posterior. approx 94% of cases are in children and teenagers, usually assymptomatic
***What is it called when there are 3-4 consecutive Schmorl's Nodes? Scheuermann Condition, usually seen in athletes and teenagers
What is irregularity of the endplate with a residual smooth, undulating cortical surface? Notochordal Impression (it involves the entire endplate, it's not FOCAL like Schmorl's Node)
What is visible on the AP projection where the inferior endplate appears as a "double hump" referred to as "Cupid's Bow Contour"? Nuclear (notochordal) Impression
What is it called when you see a cleft formation within the center of the vertebral body and results in a hour glass shaped lucency? Butterfly vertebrae
Where are Butterfly vertebrae m/c found? thoracic and lumbar spine, usually symmetrical therefore scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis are NOT associated
What is it called when there is a small TRIANGULAR ossicle, seen superior or inferior, and is anteriorly or posteriorly obliquely directed Schmorl's node? Limbus Bone
What is it called when only one lateral ossification center appears, there is a triangular shaped vertebral body, causing a wedge? Hemivertebrae, may be fused or seperate
What does a Hemivertebrae usually result in? Scoliosis, however if they have one on both sides it can correct any lateral convexity
What is it called when there is a SBO of S1 with the ossification center of S1 joined with L5 SP? Knife-Clasp deformity
When a transverse process of L5 measures _____mm or greater in height, it's considered a Transitional segment? 19mm or greater
Where can a transitional segment occur? Where is it most common? A transitional segment can occur at any region of transition. It is m/c at L/S where it can be Lumbarization or Sacralization
T/F To be considered congenital abscence of a Pedicle there must be an increase in size and/or density on the contralateral pedicle? true
If there is an absence of a pedicle on one side and a non-sclerotic pedicle on the other, is this ok? No, you should be worried. you want to see a sclerotic pedicle on one side if there is an absence of a pedicle on the other
What is it called when there in non-union of the tip of the inferior articular process? Oppenheimer's Ossicle, it is m/c in the Lumbar
What is it called when there is asymmetry of the facet articulation from side to side (only one joint space is visible)? Facet Tropism
Where is Facet Tropism m/c seen? L5/S1
What is L/S transitional segment causing scoliosis and radiating leg pain (sciatica)? Bertolotti's Syndrome
What type of normal variance is rarely seen in males and is most commonly seen bilaterally in females that have had multiple births? Paraglenoid Sulci
What is Cystic Calcification seen at the site of muscular injections, it can be caused by long term steriod use? Injection Granuloma
What are concretions, representing calcification of thrombi attached to the walls of veins, it is commonly mistaken for bladder stones? Phleboliths
Where are Phleboliths most commonly seen? Within the pelvic basin below the ischial spines
What represents the m/c deformity in the thoracic wall, the sternum will be displaced posteriorly? Pectus Excavatum (funnel chest)
***What is the m/c anomaly of the ribs? Anterior bifurcation of ribs
What is rib synostosis? It is when posterior ribs fuse together.
Created by: pcc Normal Rad