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Unit 7B Terms

Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, & Language

Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concept A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype A mental image or best example of a category.
Algorithm A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Heuristic A simple thinking strategy that often follows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone.
Insight A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Creativity The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
Confirmation Bias A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
Fixation The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set.
Mental Set A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way,often a way that has been successful in the past.
Functional Fixedness The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Representative Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances comes readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
Overconfidence The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
Belief Perseverance Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Intuition An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
Framing The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
Belief Bias Someone's evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by their belief in the truth or falsity of the conclusion.
Language Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Phoneme In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morpheme In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a part of a word.
Grammar In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
Semantics The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
Syntax The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
Babbling Stage Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
One-Word Stage The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two-Word Stage Beginning around age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements.
Telegraphic Stage Early speech in which a child speaks like a telegram - "go car" - using mostly nouns and verbs.
Linguistic Determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Critical Period An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces proper development.
Artificial Intelligence The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.
Neural Networks A circuit of biological neurons.
Linguistic Relativity Holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes.
Created by: APPsychology