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Test 2 - NRAD


Curves less than ____ degrees are considered lateral convexity, not scoliosis? Less than 15 - 20 degrees is considered lateral convexity
***T/F the Apex of the curve is the most laterally oriented pt with scoliosis? true
What are the 2 types of scoliosis? 1.Structural 2.Nonstructural
Name the 6 subclasses of structural scoliosis? 1.Idiopathic 2.Congenital 3.Developmental 4.Neuormuscular 5.Post-Traumatic 6.Inflammatory, Neoplastic, Bone Softening
What is the m/c type of structural scoliosis? Idiopathic (up to 80% of total)
***What type of Idiopathic Scoliosis is m/c seen in males? Infantile (0-3 yoa)
***What type of Idiopathic Scoliosis is m/c seen in females in a 4:1 ratio? what type of curve? Juvenile (3-9 yoa) Right thoracic curve is m/c
***What type of Idiopathic Scoliosis is m/c seen in females in a 9:1 ratio? what type of curve? Adolescent (10 yoa to skeletal maturity). Right thoracic curve is m/c
***What is it called when compressive forces act on the concave side of the curve? Hueter-Volkmann Principle (endplates press towards concavity and stretch convexity)
What type of scoliosis is seen if a hemivertebrae or rib synostosis is present? Congenital Sturctural Scoliosis
Marfan's, Neurofibromatosis, Ehlers-Danlos, Homocystinuria all fall under which type of scoliosis? Developmental Structural Scoliosis
T/F Poliomyelitis is the most common type of Neuromuscular Structural Scoliosis? True
Cerebral Palsy is associated with what type of Scoliosis? Neuromuscular Structural
***If you seen a LEFT Thoracic curve (convexity towards heart) before the age of 11, you should be concerned? Absoluetly, Red flags
Vertebral Fx, Radiation, Surgical, Micro-Trauma all fall under what type of scoliosis? Post-Traumatic Structural Scoliosis
Tuberculosis, Pyogenic Infection, Osteoid osteonma, Osteoblastoma, Paget's Disease all fall under what type of scoliosis? Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Bone Softening Diseases Structural Scoliosis
Which type of scoliosis has NO structural alterations and maybe caused by leg length inequalities? Nonstructural
T/F Structural Scoliosis can be corrected on lateral bending? False - only nonstructural scoliosis can be corrected by lateral bending
*** T/FNonstructural curves have NO rotation associated with it? true
Which type of scoliosis is the m/c of idiopathic, structural, severe rotation , rib humping? Right Thoracic
T/F non-structural scoliosis is generally non-progress, mild curve, usually no rotation? True
***What are the 2 main methods of evaluating the degree of scoliotic curvature? 1.Cobb's Method 2.Risser-Ferguson method
***Which type of method used for scoliosis uses the cephalad and caudal vertebrae of the curve with the most tilt into the concavity are used for the drawing the line of evaluation? Cobb's Method
***Which type of method uses the same cephalad and caudal head vertebrae of the curve with the most tilt into the concavity are used for drawing the line of evaluation? Risser Ferguson
Which type of mensuration method is used the most? Cobb's Method, it's more consistent
For Pedicle rotation what grade is when the pedicle is rotated past the center line? Grade 4
When is rib humping seen? With rotation, it is usually most prominent on the convex side of curve
***With scoliosis is structure or non-structure correctable with flexibility? Non-structural and correctable
Is skeletal maturity important when dealing with the ability to correct scoliosis? Yes, it is harder to correct as skeleton matures
To determine skeletal maturation which method is the most reliable (a.vertebral ring epiphysis b.Iliac Epiphysis (Risser's Sign) c.Left hand and Wrist - Greulisch & Pyle? Vertebral Ring Epiphysis
***What grade are Females skeletal mature? What grade are males skeletal mature? females - grade 4, males - grade 5
At what age in males and females does the Risser's Sign appear? males - 16, females - 14
***T/F the Left and Distal Radius closes at the same time as the vertebral ring epiphysis? true
***In dealing with scoliosis at what degrees: 1. can treat with chiropract? 2. should refer out? 3. surgery may be indicated? 1. treat with chiro = 0-20 degrees 2.Refer out = 20-40 degrees 3. Surgery = Greater than 40 degrees
How often should you xray someone with scholiosis whose growth plates haven't yet fused? xray every 3 months until growth plates close, then 1 time per year for the next 5 yrs. *An increase of 5 degrees or greater b/w any consecutive sets of xrays or greater than 20 degrees total, should be referred out for bracing
What are 2 ways to treat scoliosis non-surgically? chiropractic and bracing
***What type of bracing is used for thoracolumosacral? Boston Brace
Scoliosis is designated according to the ____and the ______? apex and convexity
Right and Left designations of scoliosis refer to the ______ of the curve? convexity
What is another name for Right Scoliosis, Left scoliosis? Right = Dextra, Left = Levo
ALL IVD's involved in the curve in scoliosis will show some degree of widening on the ______ and probably decreased height on the ______? widening on the convexity and decreased height on concavity
Created by: pcc Normal Rad