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2psyc

study list 2

QuestionAnswer
Consciousness is generally aware of your surroundings
Reticular formation brain region that controls consciousness
Consciousness as sensory awareness thalamus, senses becoming more alert
Consciousness as self-awareness apart of conscious, aware of self-thinking patterns, and self-concepts
Circadian rhythm Schedules that body follows naturally for basic function. Sleep, wake, eat. Biological clock.
• Larks go to sleep early, most energy in the morning
Owls alert in the evening, sleep well into the morning
- Darkness, the pineal gland produces a hormone called melatonin that lowers body temperature and promotes sleep
- Natural light strikes retina, melatonin production decreases, causing you to wake up.
Circadian arrhythmia – jet lag – time zone effects circadian arrhythmia. Changes melatonin.
Brain wave activity betawaves alpha waves
betawaves alert, awake. Egg waves are between 15 and 20 cycles
• alpha waves awale but relaxed. Egg waves are between 9 and 12 cycles.
• stage 1 sleep theta waves . egg – 4-7 cycles. Become less aware of environment. Sleep muscles relax.
• Stage 2 sleep - Sleep spindles – short burst of brain activity - K-complex – large burst of brain activity - (the brains attempt to monitor the environment while still allowing you to fall asleep. Talking can occur, falling sensation.)
- Sleep spindles short burst of brain activity
- K-complex large burst of brain activity
• Stage 3-4 sleep – Delta waves - Muscles are fully relaxed; heart rate slows, unresponsive to surroundings. - Stage 4 is where the deepest sleep occurs. Sleep walking could happen.
REM sleep – Rapid Eye Movement. REM sleep happens when the stages reverse back to two. - In REM sleep Frontal lobe is inactive. Lymbic system is active. Amygdala explains why you get emotional while dreaming.
Insomnia inability to initiate sleep. - Stress and anxiety prevents sleep - Nightmares
Narcolepsy suddenly enter REM sleep directly from wakefulness • Cataplexy – muscle paralysis that accompanies REM sleep. Triggered by stron emotion and sexual activity.
• Cataplexy muscle paralysis that accompanies REM sleep. Triggered by stron emotion and sexual activity.
Sleep apnea breathing can stop for a minute or more before the body alarms wake the sleeper. (Common for 50yr old men & overweight)
Night terrors experienced during the transition from stage 4 sleep to REM sleep, so the person is not dreaming and is not yet paralyzed.
Meditation may show some theta waves, characteristic of stage 1 sleep.
Motivation guides and maintains behavior to goal.
Emotion physical sensation in the body. Subjective feelings, perception of things.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs questions from class discussion
Kenrick’s hierarchy • More modern theory. Mostly about relationship.
Homeostasis a steady internal balance or equilibrium.
Set point a value actively defended to maintain homeostasis.
Drive a state of arousal or tension resulting from stimuli that are important to survival
Drive reduction the feeling of relief and reward following a return to equilibrium.
Incentives rewards that motivate behavior without the experience of any unpleasant drive state.
Emotions and ANS how temp rise and drop depending on emotion.
Learning change in behavior due to experience.
Classical conditioning Pavlov’s dog and bell experiment - Reflexes, stimuli, and responses. - Stimuli – object events experiences. • Unconditioned – not learned • Conditioned – learned, creates response
(before conditioning) neutral conditioning - bell
(during conditioning – neutral stimulus – bell and present food
(after conditioning conditioned responses – dog sal
Conditioned emotional responses – Little Albert - White rat and steel bar with hammer. - Baby was 9 months - Experiment done by Watson
Operant conditioning – BF Skinner - Responses are voluntary. Reinforcement must be immediate.
Thorndike’s puzzle box - Responses followed by pleasurable consequences then its repeated. ( the cat inside the cage)
Reinforcement any consequences that make a response more likely.
Secondary reinforcement reinforcing via pairing with primary reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement addition of pleasurable stimulus. (work hard get money)
Negative reinforcement removing an aversive stimulus. ( study to keep scholarship) avoid negative.
Punishment consequences that make a response less likely.
Punishment by application addition of unpleasant stimulus adding consequences. (chores)
Punishment by removal removable of pleasurable stimulus. Taking car keys away.
Punishment problems - Severe punishment, fear, and anxiety. - Severe punishment and avoidance - Modeling of aggression.
Making punishment more effective - Should be immediate - Should be consistent - Should be paired with reinforcement for correct behavior.
Fixed ratio constant, same number of desired response required. 10 calls = $20
Variable ratio no constant, varies 2 6 12 13
Fixed interval always same time before reinforcement opportunity. Class, pay day.
Variable interval reinforcement possibilities after varying amounts of time. Traffic, holding time.
Memory system that sense, organizes, altering, storing, retrieving information. (hippocampus)
Encoding converting environmental and mental stimuli into memorable brain codes.
Retrieval pulling information from storage
Storage hold on to what was encoded.
Sensory memory encoding a ton of info senses. • main process – pattern recognition. Icon and echos • capacity – large but not unlimited • duration – very brief
Short term memory • encoding – visual/ auditory – visual sketch pad. • Capacity – magical number 7(learn in 7) expand via chunking(smaller meaningful chucks) • Duration- 12 to 30 sec. maintenance rehearsal ( repeating info)
Long term memory - Information kept more or less permanently.
Encoding specificity how you remember the information originally. Going to crimes scene.
Recall retrieve with few or no external cues. Fill in the blanks.
Recognition looking at or hearing info already remembered. (multiple choice)
Tip of the tongue remember it but if its at the beginning that the middle.
Serial position effect info is remembered better at the beginning and end of the list.
Primacy effect words remembered better at the very beginning than the middle.
Recency effect words remembered better at the end than others.
Flashbulb memory – automatic encoding due to unexpected highly emotional events .
Forgetting failure to store information
Memory trace physical change in the brain that occurs when memory is formed.
Decay – loss of memory to disuse.
Proactive interference information learned earlier infers with learned later. Used to Type writer and but not keyboard.
Retroactive interference info learned later interferes with information learned earlier. (not wanting to go back to windows xp because go used to windows 7)
Created by: 1574238891