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Pharm Module 1

NAADAC Exam - The Pharmacology of psycohactive Substace Use

Reticular Activating System Part of the central nervous system that is responsible for a person’s state of arousal
Limbic System part of CNS responsible for emotions
Basal Ganglia Part of central nervous system that is responsible involuntary and fine motor skills
Hypothalamus Part of limbic system - Liaison between the CNS and Autonomic Nervous system.
sympathetic Nervous System Part of Autonomic nervous system when activated will Increase breathing and hart rate.
Parasympathetic Part of Autonomic nervous system when activated will Decrease breathing and hart rate.
Acetylcholine Both inhibitory and excitatory found in the basal ganglia, RAS, cerebral cortex – reacted by hallucinogens, caffeine and nicotine primary function is to control of sensory input signals and muscular control.
Norepinephrine Both inhibitory and excitatory found in the Limbic system Cerebral cortex, Hypothalamus, RAS, brain stem, spinal cord and sympathetic nervous system. Reacts to CNS stimulants and MDMA. Not enough = depression, too much = mania
Epinephrine Excitatory found in the CNS and Peripheral Nervous system reacted by nicotine and MDMA. regulates attention, mental focus, arousal, and cognition
Dopamine Inhibitory found in the basal ganglia limbic system and hypothalamus reacted by CNSstimulants alcohol and opioids. responsible for motivation, interest, and drive.
Serotonin Inhibitory found in the basal ganglia limbic system and hypothalamus reacted by central nervous system stimulants alcohol and opioids. regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction, and some cognitive functions including memory and learning;
GABA Inhibitory found in the basal ganglia limbic system and cerebral cortex – effected by CNS depressants. reduces anxiety and stress. It regulates norepinephrine, adrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin, it is a significant mood modulator
Glutamate Excitatory found in the basal ganglia limbic system and cerebral cortex reacted by CNS depressants - Low levels can lead to tiredness and poor brain activity. Dysfunction an = Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Tourette's.
Endogenous Opiods Natural peptides combat pain and stress reacted by CNS depressants and exogenous opioids.
Sedative Hypnotic CNS depressants used to treat anxiety and induce sleep
Habituation The repetition of certain behaviors until they are part of daily life
Alcohol CNS Depressant - Facilitates Gaba receptors, decreases serotonin, and Glutamate increases dopamine.
Naltrexone Marketed as ReVia, Depade, Vivitrol - Occupies opioid receptors and blocks the high
Acamprosate Marketed as Campral works by restoring the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neural activity and alleviate post acute withdrawal and reducing cravings.
cocaethylene Metabolite produces by the body when cocaine and ETOH is consumed in combination, increases heart rate BP and liver damage.
What do we use the following drugs for how do they work and what categegory. Amobarbital and Phenobarbital Barbiturates - Increase GABA, used as anticonvulsants and sedatives also used to treat ulcers, IBS,epilepsy and alcohol withdrawal. over use causes depression and addiction.
Withdrawal symptoms for barbiturates Within 6 to 8 hours nausea, vomiting, Tachycardia, diaphoresis, abdominal cramps, tremors, anxiety, agitation, restlessness. Up tp 10 days and can turn life threatening.
Valium and Xanax are both... Benzodiazepines - Schedule IV drugs used as anxiolytics and for sleep. activates GABA. Little evidence of damage due to abuse. effective for long term use to treat anxiety.
Benzo detox symptoms Anxiety restlessness diaphoresis, depression, paranoia, agitation headaches, loss of appetite, insomnia, hypersensitivity to stimulus, muscle twitches toxic psychosis seizures. Low danger in detox but titration is recommended.
Therapeutic Stimulant uses of Amphetamine Weight loss, ADD, Edema, Respiratory problems, fatigue, and depression
Amphetamine Mechanism of action Blocks metabolism of norepinephrine dopamine, adrenaline and serotonin CNS arousal, and sympathetic nervous activation.
Anabolic Steroids Psychoactive substances that are intended to imitate naturally occurring hormones, such as testosterone. Stimulate the conversion of nutrients into tissue to build muscle.
Androgen Naturally occurring male hormones such as testosterone that are essential for normal growth and developmnet.
Stacking a pattern of abusing anabolic sterpids where the individual consumes several types of anabolic sterpies at once.
Cycling a pattern of abusing anabolic sterpids where the individual consumes different types of steroids in sequence but only takes one at a time.
plateauing When anabolic steroid users develop tolerance to it's psychological and physiological effects
HGF Human Growth Factor - Natural Hormone secreated by pituitary gland and is responsible for growth of organs and bone.
HGH Human Growth factor – most powerful anabolic steroid builds muscle and decreases fat. Creates irregular growth spurts, hart abnormalities, diabetes and thyroid problems.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Prevents monoamine oxidase from breaking down the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine. People taking these drugs cannot consume red wine, aged cheese and some meats as they can trigger high BP.
Tricyclic antidepressants block the reuptake of serptonin and catecholamine. Side effects incude drowsiness, sedation, altered heartbeat, heartburn, dry mouth and urine retentionm nausea and reduction of libido.
SSRI's Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors - block the reputake of only serptonin. side effect is reduced sex drive and some Withdrawal effects including dizziness numbness, vivid dreams, tingling, irritability.(Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft)
Antipsychotics used to treat distortions in thought perception and emotion also known as neuroleptics and work by blocking post-synaptic dopamine receptors.
Xanthines A category of stimulants includes caffeine theophylline (Found in tea) and theobromide (found in chocolate)
Adenosine Most effected by caffeine - the inhibetory neuro-modulator that normally blocks release of dopamine and acetylcholine.
Catecholamine Adrenal galnd Hormones that include epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine.
Created by: NAADAC



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