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PHARMACOLOGY

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NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS CHAPTER 15, PAGE 249 NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS Grand Mal seizures are characterized by: * 1. LOC (loss of consciousness). * 2. Violent rapid contraction & relaxation of the muscles (tonic-clonic seiz's). * 3. Tongue biting. * 4. Incontinence (loss of bowel &/or bladder control)
NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS * Petit mal seiz's are charac'd by: * 1. Disorientation. * 2. Twitching (facial). * 3. Petit mal seiz's aka * absence seiz's. * Absence seiz's are more common in * children. * Narcolepsy is a type of absence seiz charac'd by an * unexpeced sudden LOC. * A warning sign or symptom of an impending seiz = * aura (sensory disturbances). * Period of time just after a seiz when vic is confused = * postictal period (5-30 min).
NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS Meds used to trt seiz's = * antiseiz meds, or * antiepileptics, or * anticonvulsants. * Antiseiz meds = * 1. Dilantin aka * phenytoin. NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS * Antiseiz meds cont'd. * 2. Luminal aka * phenobarbital (phenobarb"). * 3. Lamictal. * 4. Keppra. * 5. Topamax. * Use of Topamax during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects: * cleft labia &/or palate.
NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS * Extreme seiz activity = * status epilepticus. * Med used to treat status epilepticus = * diazepam aka * Valium or Diastat. NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS Alzheim's disease (AD) charac'd = * irreversible & progressive loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex. * Manifestations include progressive difficulty with * memory, judgment, & reasoning that eventually progresses to dementia.
NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS Drugs to treat Alzheimer's Disease (AD) = * 1. Aricept. * 2. Exelon. * 3. Namenda. NEUROLOGICAL Parkinson's disease (PD) charc'd = * 1. Shaking tremors. * 2. Muscle rigidity. * 3. Bradykinesia (slowness of movement). * 4. Mask-like facial expression. * 5. Drooling. * Shuffling gait progressing to a loss of ability to ambulate.
NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS Parkinsin's Disease (PD) caused by deficiency of a neurotransmitter in the brain called = * dopamine. * Drugs to treat PD = * 1. carbidopa + levodopa aka * Duodopa or * Parcopa or * Sinemet. * 2. Requip. NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS Drugs to treat Parkinson's Disease (cont'd) * 3. Mirapex. * Mirapex is also used to treat * restless leg syndrome (RLS). * Meds used to treat insomnia = * hypnotics.
NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS * Meds to treat insomnia are called: * Hypnotics. * Hypnotics include: * 1. Ambien. * 2. Lunesta. * 3. Rozerem. * 4. Restoril aka * temazepam. * 5. Dalmane aka * flurazepam. NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS * OTC hypnotics include: * 1. Nytol. * 2. Sominex. * These OTC hypnotics contain * diphenhydramine aka * Benadryl.
NEUROLOGICAL DRUGS * Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is also classified as an = * antihistamine. * A common side effect of antihistamines = * drowsiness. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS CHAPTER 16 - PAGE 269
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * A neurosis is charac'd by * anxiety, anxiousness, & tension at a more intense level than normal. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Anxiety can be assoc'd with phobias = * 1. Acrophobia (fear of heights). * 2. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders). * 3. Ophidiophobia (fear of snakes). * 4. Agroaphobia (fear of open spaces). * 5. Claustrophobia (fear of confined spa
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Neuroses can also cause * "panic (anxiety) attacks." * Medications used to treat neuroses are = * sedatives or * antianxiety drugs or * minor tranquilzers. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Sedatives include: * 1. Xanax aka * alprazolam. * Librium aka * chlordiazepoxide. * 3. Tranxene.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Sedatives include cont'd: * 4. Valium aka * diazepam. * 5. Ativan aka * lorazepam. * Sedatives can lose effectiveness if combined with * caffeine. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Psychosis charac'd by: * losing touch with reality & can result in illusions, delusions, & hallucinations. * An illusion = * false interpretation of a sensory stimulus (mirage). * A delusion is a * false belief such as "I am J.C.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Psychosis is charac'd by cont'd: * A hallucination = * sensory perception that is not caused by an external stimulus ("hearing voices"). * Meds used to treat psychoses = * major tranquilizers or * antipsychotics or * neuroleptics. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Antipsychotics = * 1. Thorazine aka * chlorpromazine. * 2. Seroquel. * 3. Abilify. * 4. Risperdal. * 5. Zyprexa. * 6. haloperidol aka * Haldol (hallucinate).
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Antipsychotics include cont'd: * Haldol (haloperidol is also used to treat * Tourette's syndome. * Tourette's syndrome is charac'd by * involuntary body movements & vocal outbursts. * 7. Catapres aka * clonidine. PSYCHE * Major depressive disorder (MDD) aka clinical depressions charac'd by: * 1. Insomnia. * 2. Crying. * 3. Lack of pleasure in any activity. * 4. Anorexia. * 5. Suicidal feelings. * 6. Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, & worthlessness.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Meds used to treat Manic Depressive disorcer (MDD) = * antidepressants. * Antidepressants include: * 1. Lexapro. * 2. Effexor. * 3. Cymbalta. * 4. Prozac. * 5. Paxil. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Meds used to treat MDD cont'd: * 6. Abilify. * Abilify can increase risk of: * suicidal tendencies, CVA in elderly dementia patients, hyperglycemia, leukocytopenia, seizures, dysphagia, impaired judgment, & impaired motors skills.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Meds used to treat MDD cont'd: * 7. Zoloft. * Lexapro, Paxil, & Zoloft use during pregnancy increases the chances of birth defects such as: * ASD * atrial septal defect *VSD * ventricular septal defect. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * PPHN * persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate * SB * spina bifida
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Meds to treat MDD cont'd: * 7. Wellbutrin (Zyban). * Zyban (Wellbutrin) or Chantix cause serious neuropsychiatric symptoms: * chgs in beh., hostile, agitated, depressed mood, suicidal thoughts & beh., & attempted suicide. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Meds to treat Manic Depressive Disorder cont'd: * Pristiq. * Interaction of Pristiq with NSAIDs or anticoagulants can cause * bleeding tendencies. * The interaction of Pristiq with antimigrane meds can cause * sudden death.
PSYCHE DRUGS * MDD cont'd: * Side effects of Pristiq = * hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, & incrsd IOP. * Some antidepressants can cause suicidal tendencies in * children & teens. * Depressions linked to a deficiency of * omega 3 fatty acids PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * Manic depressive illness (MDI) charac'd = = * cyclic extreme mood swings btw 2 opp. poles of emotion. * MDI aka * bipolar mental disorder (BMD). * Meds used to treat BMD = * 1. Lithobid aka * lithium.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Meds used to treat (BMD) bipolar mental disorder cont'd: * 2. Seroquel. * 3. Thorazine aka * chlorpromazine. * 4. Abilify. * 5. Risperdal. * 6. Zyprexa. * 7. Topamax. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * ADHD = * attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. * ADHD = * inattention, impulsivity, & excessive motor activity. * Meds used to treat ADHD = * 1. Focalin.
PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS Meds used to treat ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) cont'd: * 2. Catapres aka * clonidine. * 3. Ritalin or Concerta aka * methylphenidate. * 4. Adderall. PSYCHIATRIC DRUGS * A med to treat alcoholism = * Antabuse. * Antabuse will not allow the alcohol to be broken down & absorbed. The mixture of alcohol & Antabuse will cause * cephalalgia, vertigo, & N+V.
ANALGESIC DRUGS CHAPTER 22 - PAGE 402 ANALGESIC DRUGS * Analgesic = * pertaining to no pain. * Analgesics are classified as * narcotic analgesics & * non-narcotic analgesics.
ANALGESIC DRUGS * Most narcotic analgesics can cause an addictive feeling of well being = * euphoria. * Many analgesics work by raising the * pain threshold. * Narcotic analgesics include: * 1. Stadol. * 2. codeine. ANALGESIC DRUGS Narcotic analgesics include cont'd: * Codeine is also classified as an * antitussive. * 3. Dilaudid. * 4. meperidine aka * Demerol. * 5. MS Contin or Roxanol aka * morphine sulfate (MSO4).
ANALGESIC DRUGS Narcotic analgesics include cont'd: * 6. Nubain (no pain). * 7. OxyContin aka * oxycodone. * 8. Talwin. ANALGESIC DRUGS * Non narcotic analgesics include: * 1. acetaminophen (APAP) aka * Panadol or Tylenol. * The classifications for APAP are: * non narcotic analgesic & * antipyretic.
* Non narc analgesics incld cont'd: * Bleeding prblms occur = acetaminophen is combo w * Ginko biloba. * Annually, __ Am's devlp liver dmg from acetaminophen o.d. (NBC 2009). * 56,000 * 50% of acute liver failure in Am linked to acetaminophen o.d. ANALGESIC DRUGS Non narcotic analgesics include cont'd: * 2. aspirin (ASA) aka * Anacin. * Bayer. * Ecotrin. * Empirin.
ANALGESIC DRUGS * The classification for ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) (aspirin) are: * anticoagulant. * non narcotic analgesic, * NSAID (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), & * antipyretic. (ANNA). ANALGESIC DRUGS * Buffered ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) (aspirin) meds include: * Alka Seltzer. * Ascriptin. * Bayer. * Bufferin.
ANALGESIC DRUGS * Buffered ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) (aspirin) meds include cont'd: * Buffers include: * 1. A1 - aluminum &/or * 2. Mg - magnesium &/or * 3. Ca - calcium &/or * 4. NaHCO3 - sodium bicarbonate.
ANALGESIC DRUGS Combo narcotic & non narcotic analgesics = * 1. Empirin #3 aka * codeine & ASA. * 2. Percodan + Roxiprin aka * oxycodone & ASA. ANALGESIC DRUGS * 3. Percocet, Roxilox, Roxicet, Tylox, & Endocet aka * oxycodone & acetaminophen. * 4. Tylenol #3 aka * codeine & APAP. (APAP = acetaminophen) * 5. Vicodin aka * APAP (APAP = acetaminophen) & hydrocodone.
ANALGESIC DRUGS * Narcotic & non narcotic meds are commonly combined to produce a * synergistic effect. * NSAIDs = * 1. Ansaid. * 2. Indocin aka * indomethacin. * 3. Naprosyn or Aleve aka * naproxen. ANALGESIC DRUGS///* Narc & non narc meds combo prdce * synergistic effect, (cont'd). *4. Feldene. * 5. Clinoril. * 6. Celebrex. *7. Advil + Motrin aka * ibuprofen. *Class for Advil + Motrin = * (ibuprofen) = *antipyretic. * non narc analg, & NSAID.
ANALGESIC DRUGS * A migrane is a * chronic, severe, temporal headache (H/A) accompanied by N+V & photophobia. * Meds used to treat migraines include: * 1. Imitrex. ANALGESIC DRUGS * Meds used to treat migraines include: (cont'd): * 2. atenolol aka * Tenormin. * 3. metoprolol aka * Lopressor or Toprol. * 4. nadolol aka * Corgard. * 5. Inderal aka * propranolol.
ANALGESIC DRUGS * Meds used to treat migraines include: (cont'd): * 6. dilitiazem aka * Cardizem. * 7. verapamil aka * Calan. * 8. ergotamine aka * Ergomar. * 9. Treximet. * 10. Topamax. ANESTHETICS CHAPTER 23 - PAGE 424
ANESTHETIC DRUGS * Anesthesia means * a condition of no feeling or nervous sensation. * General anesthesia involves a * loss of consciousness (LOC). * Local anesthesia involves a * small area of skin & adjacent tissue. ANESTHETIC DRUGS * Regional anesthesia involves a * nerve block. * Spinal anesthesia involves the * subarachnoid space. * Epidural anesthesia involves the * epidural space.
ANESTHETIC DRUGS Anesthetics includes: * 1. Solarcaine. * 2. Xylocaine aka * lidocaine. * 3. Marcaine. * 4. Novocain aka * procaine. * 5. Pontocaine. ANESTHETIC DRUGS * Induction of anesthesia refers to the * initial anesthesia that causes LOC. * Other anesthesia is then given to place the patient in a * coma. * Meds used as an induction anesthetic includes: * 1. etomidate. * 2. Pentothal.
ANESTHETIC DRUGS * A neuromuscular blocker causes * muscular paralysis & includes: * 1. Anectine aka * succinylcholine ("succs"). * A preoperative med designed to decrease airway secretions = * atropine. THE END
Created by: gretchen2
 

 



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