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Neo-Ped Midterm

Neonatal Pulmonary Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among infants born at less than 28 weeks of gestation 60%
Conditions responsible for the reduction in pulmonary blood flow during the course of RDS Hypoxemia, Acedemia, and Hypercarbia
Reason term or near-term infants commonly overlooked as a group of patients at risk for developing RDS These infants tend to be strong and have excellent pulmonary reserve
Significance of an infant with RDS demonstrating a grunt during each exhalation An effort to maintain its functional residual capacity (FRC)
Condition diffuse, fine, reticulogranular densities, thus ground-glass appearance the chest radiograph of a newborn, preterm infant would suggest Respiratory distress syndrome
Correct interpretation of a lecithin-to-sphingomyelin (L/S) ration of 2:1 The presence of lung maturity
Condition suggested by CXR showing pulmonary vascular congestion, prominent perihilar streaking, fluid in the interlobular fissures, hyperexpansion, flat diaphragm Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Therapeutic intervention(s) generally needed to treat transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) Oxygen administration
Reason meconium staining occur predominantly in infants greater than 36 weeks of gestational age These infants demonstrate strong peristalsis and have poweful anal sphincter tone
Typical radiograph features of an infant with MAS Patchy areas of atelectasis
Incidence of normal pulmonary vascular resistance that is achieved within 24 hours after birth 80%
Clinical presentations associated with apnea of prematurity Snoring, mouth breathing, choking
Recommended medication for an infant with apnea of prematurity experiencing prolonged episodes of apnea Methylxanthines aka caffeine
Proper intervention to perform when an infant is born with choanal atresia Insert an oropharyngeal airway
A way to confirn a diagnosis of choanal atresia Attempting to insert an 8 French suction catheter through each nasal cavity
Condition consistent with micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate in a newborn Pierre Robin syndrome
Most common form of tracheoesophageal fistula and essophageal atresia Blind-ending upper esophageal pouch of variable length associated with a fistula from the lower trachea or main stem bronchi leading into the distal esophagus
Clincal manifestations characterized by congenital diaphragmantic hernia The herniated contents cause coompression of the developing ipsilateral ung, Histologic studies demonstrate increased muculature in the media of the arteroles, and lung tissue is hypoplastic, including the pulmonary vasculature, even on the contralateral
Condition consistent with the presence of a scaphoid abdomen in a newborn with tachypnea Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Interventions used to treat congenital diaphragmatic hernia Hig-frequency oscillatory ventilation, bag-mask ventilation immediately after birth, thoracostomy tube insertion if necessary
Most common patient complaint associated with pectus carinatum Cosmetic
Types of cells responsible for producing pulmonary surfactant Alveolar type II cells
A term or phrase that describes air leaving the lungs and entering the pulmonary interstitial spaces as a consequence of barotrauma Pulmonary interstitial emphysema
Condition that can be suspected if tachypnea, hypoxemia, or hypercarbia are present in a newborn Pneumothorax
An alternative to refractory surfactant replacement therapy and conventional mechanical ventilation Initiation of high-frequency ventilation
Condition consistent with finding a transcutaneous PO2 difference of 25 mm Hg between an infat's right wrist and left leg Patent ductus arteriosus
Condition that should be suspected if a newborn has a respiratory rate greater than 60 bpm beyond an hour after birth Sepsis
Mechanism implicated in the development of retinopath of prematurity Fluctuating PaO2 values, or PaCO2 values, after vasoconstrictive injury
Measure that can help reduce the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in infants receiving mechanical ventilation Perform transfusions to keep the infant's hematocrit greater than 40%
Created by: bhilaire