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CH 5 RAD 150

X-Ray Imaging System

The function of the x-ray imaging system is to provide a controlled flow of ____ intense enough to produce an x-ray beam for imaging. electrons
What are the three main components of an x-ray imaging system? x-ray tube, operating console and high voltage generator
X-Ray systems operate at voltages of ____ - ____ kVp and tube currents of ___-___ mA. 25-150; 100 - 1200
Which radiolucent material is used for the production x-ray tables? carbon fiber
The ____ _____ allows radiologic technologist to control the x-ray tube current and voltage. operating console
_____ ______ refers to the number of x-rays or the intensity of the x-ray beam. Radiation quantity
_____ _____ refers to the penetrability of the x-ray beam. Radiation quality
Most x-ray imaging systems are designed to operate on ___ V power. 220
The voltage provided to an x-ray unit easily may vary by as much as ___%. 5
The ____ ______measures the voltage provided to the x-ray imaging system and adjusts that voltage to precisely 220 V. line compensator
The power suppled to the x-ray system is delivered FIRST to the _________. autotransformer
The _____ has a single winding and is designed to supply a precise voltage to the filament circuit and to the high-voltage circuit of the x-ray imaging system. autotransformer
The voltage an autotransformer receives (Vp) and the voltage it provides (Vs) are _____ related to the number of turns of the transformer (Ns;Np) enclosed by the respective connections. directly
What is the Autotransformer Law? Vs/Vp=Ns/Np
____ determines the quality of the x-ray beam. kVp
Step up transformer ____ the voltage to the chosen kVp. increases
Number of electrons emitted by the filament is controlled by _____ of the filament. temperature
The x-ray tube current should always cross from ____ to ____ and is measured in ___. cathode - anode ; milliamperes (mA)
The filament temperature is controlled by the filament ____ and is measured in _____. current; amperes
An increase in filament current and temperature will allow more electrons to be released by _____ ____. thermionic emission
Filament operate at currents of __ - __ A. 3 - 6
mAs is also _____ ____. electrostatic charge
The filament transformer is a ___-___ transformer; therefore the voltage supplied to the filament is ____. step-down; lower
A filament transformer steps down the V to approximately ___ V and provides current to ___ the filament. 12; heat
A guard timer will terminate an exposure after approximately ___ seconds. 6
What are the four types of timers? synchronous, electronic, mAs and AEC timers
Synchronous timers are based off ___ Hz. 60
_____ timers are most sophisticated, accurate and also controlled by a microprocessor. Electronic
____ determines the number of x-rays emitted and therefore the exposure of the IR. mAs
The mAs timer is designed to provide the highest ____ and shortest ____. kVp; exposure
____ is used primarily for electrical insulation. Oil
The ___-____ ______ increases output voltage from the autotransformer to the kVp needed for x-ray production. high-voltage generator
What are the three parts to a high-voltage generator? high voltage transformer, filament transformer and rectifiers
In a step-up transformer, the ____ voltage is higher than the _____ voltage, because the number of secondary windings is higher than the primary windings. secondary; primary
The ratio of the number of secondary windings to the number of primary windings is called the ____ ____. turns ratio
Voltage and the turns ratio is ___ proportional. directly
Primary voltage is measured in ___; secondary voltage is measured in ___. volts; kilovolts
Transformers operate only on _____. AC (alternating current)
The turns ratio of a high voltage transformer is usually between ___ and _____. 500:1; 1000:1
Primary current is measured in ___ and secondary current is measured in ___. amperes (A); milliamperes (mA)
An x-ray tube requires _____ _____. (DC) direct current (electrons flow in only one direction)
____ is the process of converting AC to DC. Rectification
Electron flow is from ___ to ____. cathode; anode (by rectification)
Diodes are currently known as ____-_____ ______. solid state rectifiers
_____ semiconductors have loosely bound electrons that are relatively free to move. N-type
____ semiconductors have spaces, called holes, where there are no electrons. P-type
During ____ rectification, current flows through the tube during the positive part of the cycle (60 pulses/second). half-wave
During _______ voltage, the current that passes through the x-ray tube exists only during the positive half of the cycle when the anode is positive and the cathode is negative. unrectified
Half-wave rectified circuit contains ____ diodes and passes ____ x-ray pulses/second. 1-2; 60
A form of voltage rectification that rectifies the entire AC waveform is called _______. full-wave rectification
Full wave contains at least ___ diodes and current is passed through the tube ____ pulses/second. 4; 120
During three phase power, there are six pulses per _____ s. Three phase power stays ______. 1/60; constant
High frequency generators result in a _____ patient dose. decreased
During capacitor discharge, the voltage falls approximately ____ kV/mAs. 1
A falling load generator ensures the shortest possible _____ ____ and also decreases the ____ of the anode. exposure time; temperature
Single phase power has ____% voltage ripple. 100
Three phase six pulse power produces a voltage with ___% ripple. 14 (never falls below 86% max)
Three phase twelve pulse power produces a voltage with a ___% ripple. 4 (never falls below 96% max)
High frequency generators produces a voltage with ___% ripple. 1 (never falls below 99% max)
Power ratings is measured in _____. kilowatts (kW)
A step down transformer is also known as a _____ transformer. filament
Power rating (kW) = _____ x _____ current (A); Potential (V)