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Psychology CH7

Memory

QuestionAnswer
Memory that clearly and distinctly expresses (explicates) specific information; also referred to as declarative memory (data, facts, figures). Explicit Memory
Memories of events experiences by a person or that take place in the person's presence. Episodic Memory
General knowledge, as opposed to episodic memory. Semantic Memory
Memory that is suggested (implied) but not plainly expressed, as illustrated in the things that people do bt do not state clearly; also referred to as nondeclarative memory (how-to actions). Implicit Memory
The activation of specific associations in memory, oftn as a result of repitition and without making a conscious effort to access the memory. Priming
Memory for past events, activities, and learning experiences, as shown by explicit (episodic and semantic) and implicit memories. Retrospective Memory
Memory to perform an act in the future, as at a certain time or when a certain event occurs. Prospective Memory
The rapid jumps made by a person's eyes as they fixate on different points. Saccadic Eye Movement
The type or stage of memory first encountered by a stimulus. Sensory memory holds impressions briefly, but long enough so that series of perceptions are psychologically continuous. Sensory Memory
An assumed change in the nervous system that reflects the impression made by the stimulus. Said to be "held" in sensory registers. Memory Trace
A system of memory that holds information briefly, but long enough so that it can be processed further. "Gate Keeper" Sensory Register
A mental representation of a visual stimulus that is held briefly in sensory memory. Icon
The sensory register that briefly holds mental representations of visual stimuli (the 5 senses). Iconic Memory
The maintenance of detailed visual memories over several minutes. Eidetic Imagery
The type or stage of memory that can hold information for up to a minute or so after the trace of the stimulus decays; also called working memory. Short-term Memory
5 Minute breaks every hour- creating primary and recency effect, more effective way of studying. Space-Practice
The tendency to recall more accurately the first and last items in a series. Serial-position Effect
The tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items. Primacy Effect
The tendency to recall the last items in a series of items. Recency Effect
A stimulus or group of stimuli that is perceived as a discrete piece of information (SS#s or phone #s). Chunk
Mechanical associative learning that is based on repetition. Rote
In memory theory, to cause information to be lost from short-term memory by adding new information. Displace
The type or stage of memory capable of relatively permanent storage (even things we thought we forgot, truly learned information). Long-term Memory
In Freud's psychodynamic theory, the ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from conscious awareness. Repression
A way of mentally representing the world, sch as a belief or an expectation, that can influence perception of persons, objects, and situations. Schema
A memory that is highly detailed and strongly emotionally elaborated because of its great and unusual significance. Flashbulb Memory
The feeling that information is stored in memory although it cannot be readily retrieved; also called the feeling-of-knowing experience. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) Phenomenon
Information that is better retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored, or learned. Context-dependent Memory
Information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored, or learned. State-dependent Memory
Meaningless sets of two consonants, with a vowel sandwiched between, that are used to study memory. Nonsense Syllables
In information, processing, the easiest memory task, involving identification of objects or events encountered before (multiple choice or true/false questions). Recognition
Retrieval or reconstruction of learned material (essay questions). Recall
Nonsense syllables presented in pairs in experiments that measure recall. Paired Associates
A measure of retention. Material is usally relearned more quickly than it is learned initially. Relearning
The view that we may forget stored material becase other learning interferes with it. Interference Theory
The interference of new learning with the ability to retrieve material learned previously. Retroactive Interference
The interference of old learning with the ability to retrieve material learned recently. Proactive Interference
Amnesia thought to stem from psychological conflict or trauma (repression may be at the heart of this). Dissociative Amnesia
Inability to recall events that occured priod to the age of 3 or so; also termed childhood amnesia. Infantile Amnesia
A structure in the limbic syste that plays an important role in the formation of new memories ("memory photo album"). Hippocampus
Failure to remember events that occured after physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma (cannot have memories AFTER the trauma). Anterograde Amnesia
Failure to remember events that occured prior to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma (cannot remember anything that happened BEFORE the trauma). Retrograde Amnesia
Created by: SSalvage139