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develop. psych 4-6

What are the two main growth spirts? Infancy and puberty
what secretes the growth hormone? pituitary gland
what is the name of the hormone the liver releases for bones and muscles to grow? somatomedin
what percentage of U.S. kids are overweight? 30%
how is obesity measured? body mass index (BMI) is 30 or higher.
what is the hypothalamus? structure in the higher portion of the brain that monitors eating, drinking, sex
what is the role of the pituitary gland? controls growth and regulates other glands
what are gonads? sex glands, testes in males, ovaries in females
How are the appropriate sex hormones manufactured? the pituitary gland sends a signal to the gonads to manufacture the sex hormones
How does the body respond when hormone levels are too high or low? the hypothalamus alerts the pituitary gland which sends a signal to change production levels
what are androgens? male sex hormone, testosterone is associated with physical changes - development in external genitals, increase in height, voice change
what are estrogens? female sex hormones, estradiol levels are associated with - breast development, uterine development, skeletal changes
How do majority of girls feel as puberty progresses? girls become less happy
average age of girls for puberty 10
How do majority of guys feel as puberty progresses? guy are happier
average age of guys for puberty 12
Characteristics of early maturing boys more poised and relaxed, more popular and likely to be leaders, less impulsive, more worried about being liked, more reliant on others, more bound by rules
Characteristics of late maturing boys feel inadequate and self concsious, feel rejected and insecure, more aggressive and depressed, more likely to have conflict with parents, poor social and coping skills
Characteristics of early maturing girls less social, more introverted and shy, more negative about menarche, more likely to have antisocial friends, have poor body image and low self esteem, have increased risk of behavioral and mental health problems
effects of early/late maturation is most likely to be negative when.. adolescents are more/less developed than peers, do not see the changes as advantageous, experience several stressful events concurrently
what are proximal experiences that cause suicide? immediate, highly stressful circumstances
what are distal experiences that cause suicide? earlier, more chronic stressful circumstances
What is the diagnostic criteria for anorexia? refusal to maintain minimal normal body weight. intense fear of gaining weight/becoming fat even though they are underweight disturbance in the way body weight/shape is experienced or denial of seriousness of the current low weight
What are possible biological causes of anorexia? deficiency of a crucial chemical in the brain disturbance of the hypothalamus high levels of opiate-like substances in the spinal fluid reduced blood flow to certain parts of the brain
what are possible psychological causes of anorexia? fear of growing up fear of sexuality malfunctioning family societal pressure to be thin
What is the diagnostic criteria for bulimia? recurrent episodes of binge eating recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain like vomitting, fasting, laxatives, etc binging/compensatory behaviors last for 2/week for 3 months
What are the possible biological causes of bulimia? low levels of seratonin use food to satisfy hunger for love and affection
What is the treatment for eating disorders? goal - to eat properly hospital admission drugs to encourage eating/inhibit vomitting behavioral therapy individual, group, family therapy antidepressant/anti-anxiety medicine
Why is age 35 a milestone? illness overtakes accidents as the leading cause of deaths
What does stress do to the body? causes the adrenal gland to secrete stress hormones which cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and sweating
What is primary appraisal by lazarus and folkman? assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral
What is secondary appraisal by lazarus and folkman? assessment of whether you have the ability to cope with the stressor or not
What causes stress? events that produce negative emotions situations that are uncontrollable or unpredictable events that are ambiguous or confusing multi-tasking
What is problem-focused coping? directly change situation to make is less stressful
what is emotion-focused coping? conscious regulation of emotion
What is defensive coping? unconscious strategies that distort/deny the true nature of the situation
What is sensation? process of detecting physical stimuli from the environment
What is perception? interpretation of sensory input by the brain
What is the visual preference technique? present 2 stimuli at the same time to see whether infants will look at one more than the other
what is the habituation method? a repetitive stimulus becomes so familiar/uninteresting taht responses initially associated with it are no longer apparent
what is evoked potentials? electrodes are placed on an infants scalp above the brain centers that process sensory information and brain wave activity is measured
What is high-amplitude sucking? most infants control sucking to tell us what thye can sense and give us and idea of their likes and dislikes
What is an infant's vision abilities? can't tell difference between blue and grey not good at vision acuity can't see small objects or detail at birth neonate has 20/600 vision
What is an infant's auditory abilities? discriminate sounds that differ in pitch duration loudness direction
What is an infant's taste and smell abilities? suck longer and harder for something sweet find bad smells disgusting just like adults
What is an infant's touch, temperature, and pain abilities? sensitive to touch because they move when they are touched they use touch to discover their world newborns get fussy when hot baby's are sensitive to pain but we can't really study it
About when can a baby crawl? 7-8 months
About when can a baby sit up? 6-7 months
About when can a baby walk? 12 months
Who and when first discussed ADHD? Dr. Hoffman in 1845
Who and when published a series about ADHD? Sir George Still in 1902
What are the principle characteristics of ADHD? inattention hyperactivity impulsitivy -symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity procede attention
What DSM classification does not show significant inattention? predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
What DSM classification does not show hyperactive-impulsive behavior? predominantly inattentive type
What DSM classification shows both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors? Combined type
What are signs of hyperactivity-impulsivness? feeling restless, often squirming or fidgeting running, climbing, or leaving a seat where sitting or quiet behavior is expected blurting out answers before hearing
What are signs of inattention? being easily distracted by irrelevant sights and sounds failing to pay attention to details and making careless mistakes completely losing/forgetting things like toys, pencils, books needed for a task skipping from one incomplete activity to another
What are the specific requirements for diagnosis of ADHD? behaviors must be demonstrated to a degree of being inappropriate for the person's age behaviors must appear early in life - before age 7 behaviors must continue for at least 6 months behaviors have to create a handicap in at least 2 areas of a person
What are the potential causes of ADHD? environment agents like cigarrettes and alcohol during pregnancy brain injury food additives & sugar genetics - 25% of close relatives in families of ADHD kids are also ADHD brain structure/function abnormalities
What is the multi-modal treatment (MTA) study? included 579 elementary school kids with ADHD kids randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments medication management behavioral treatment combined medication and behavioral treatment nothing combination and medication were superior
Characteristics of medications for ADHD? stimulants (dopamine receptors) strattera (non-epinephrine) reduce hyperactivity and improve focus improve physcial coordination
What are the side effects of medications for ADHD? decreased appetite insomnia increased anxiety irritability mild stomach aches headaches tics
What is cognitive development? answers the question how do people learn, includes: language aquisition memory problem solving
What are Piaget's theoretical assumptions? children are constructivists development occurs in stages thinking is qualitively different in different stages stages occur in an invariant order you can't skip stages all-or-none property
What is a schema? basic unit of thought/cognition mental models created to represent, organize and interpret our experiences
What is a sensorimotor schema? sensory motor is the earliest to emerge, first mental models. revolve around children's actions and sensory system.
What is object permanence and when does it occur? understanding that objects exist independently. occurs during sensorimotor schema
What is a symbolic schema? involve mental representation and symbolic thought. children can go beyond their actions to represent things they never acted on
What is operational schemas? schema which is based on cognitive operations on the objects of thought : 1+2=3
How do schemas change? motivational factors move kids to develop new schemas like adaptation and acommadation
What is adaptation? changing to better fit your environment
What is assimilation? person interprets new ideas/experiences to fit existing schemas
What is accomodation? person changes existing schemas to fit new ideas/experiences
What are the 4 stages of cognitive development? sensorimotor stage pre-operations concrete operations formal operations
At what age is the sensorimotor stage? birth-2 years
At what age is the pre-operations stage occur? 2-7 years
At what age is the concrete operation occur? 7-11 years
At what age is the formal operations occur? 11+
What occurs at the sensory motor stage? child uses sensori-motor schemas which are primarily reflexive in nature. Main achievment is symbolic thought
What occurs at the pre operations stage? increase in symbolic functions but symbolic schemas are not necessarily accurate. children unaware of principles they use to solve problems so they don't understand their own mental life.
What is egocentrism? refers to young children's difficulty in seeing the world from another's viewpoint
What is centration? narrowly focused thought that characterizes preoperational youngsters.
What is animism? attributing child's own thoughts and feelings to animate objects - "the sun is tired so he is going to bed"
What is part-whole relationship confusion? You ask a child if there are more sunflowers than flowers? The child answers sunflowers.
What are errors of conservation due to centration? focused on the shape more than the amount.
What occurs at concrete operations? overcome conservation errors. thinking less egocentric and less animism. Can now mentally represent action. Have better understanding of relational logic. Now capable of seriation and transitivity. NOT capable of abstract or hypothetical thought.
What occurs at formal operations? have abstract thought have hypothetical thought thinking more flexible
What are the main criticisms of Piaget's theory? vague about specifics of assimilation and accommodation underestimate infants and young children overestimate abilities of adolescents ignores culture and environment
What is post-formal thought? more subjective understanding consideration of real-life consequences acknowledges adult predicaments must sometimes be involved in relativistic terms
Created by: sheyenneb3