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A&P test

Muscle system

Sarcolema Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber that forms T-tubules
Sarcoplasm similar to the cytoplasm, has nuclei and mitochondria
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber that stores calcium, encases myofibrils
T-tubules a unique structure of muscle fibers, extensions of the sarcolema that extend into the muscle fiber. They convey nerve signal that cause Calcium to be release from the SR into the sarcoplasm.
Sarcomere -Smallest functional unit of muscle fiber -Each sarcomere extendes between two dark vefrtical lines called z lines -The horiz. stripes are formed by myolfilaments
Myofibrils -A myofybril is a bundle of myofilaments that contract. -Each myofibril is composed of numerous sarcomeres that are linked
What band is composed of what myofilament -I-band is Actin -A-band is myosin -H-band is Actin and Myosin
Explain the Sliding filament theory -Occurs when sarcomeres shorten -Actin filaments slide past the myosin filaments
Explain the neuromuscular junction -Axon terminal It comes in close proximity to the sarcolemma Have vesicles that contains Ach -Synaptic cleft- a small gap that separates the axon from the sarcolemma
Exolain the steps involved with Skeletal muscle contraction -Nerve signal arrives at the axon terminal -Ach is released -Ach bind to receptors on the sarcolemma -The sarcolemma sends a signal that travels down the T-tubules to the SR -The SR releases Calcium -Calcium from the SR causes the filaments to slide
The Role of Actin and Myosin -Actin is covered by tropomyosin when muscle is relaxed. -Calcium combines with troponin and mysosin binding sites are exposed
Explain what happens at Binding Site 1 and 2 -Myosin binds with ATP -After it binds, ATPase split the ATP into ADP and a Phosphate -The rxn causes Actin to bind with myosin -Once binded that ADP and P are released and cause the cross bridges to bend.
What 2 roles does ATP has -Energize the myosin cross bridges -Breaking the link between the myosin and actin
Creatine phosphate breakdown -Does not require oxygen -Short bouts of activity -Fastest way to make ATP -Regenerate ATP by transferring its phosphate to ADP
Fermentation -Anaerobic -Short burst of exercise -Glucose is broken down to lactic acid
Cellular respiration -Use glucose from stored fate and glycogen -CO2 and wather are end products -Heat is a by-product
motor unit A nerve fiber together with a muscle fiber
Effects of aging -Muscle mass and strength decrease -Endurance decreases
Created by: ckdabne