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unit 7A Terms


Memory The persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Encoding The processing of storing information into the memory system.
Storage The retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory Memory The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-term Memory Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term Memory The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Working Memory A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
Parallel Processing The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.
Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Effortful Processing Encoding that requires effort and conscious effort.
Rehearsal The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Spacing Effect Tendency for distributed or practice to yield, better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial Position Effect Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Visual Encoding The encoding of picture images.
Acoustic Encoding The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Semantic Encoding The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
Imagery Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Mnemonics Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Chunking Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Iconic Memory A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Echoic Memory A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Long-term Potentiation An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
Flashbulb memory A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Amnesia The loss of memory.
Implicit Memory Retention independent of conscious recollection.
Explicit Memory Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare."
Hippocampus A neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
Recall A measure of memory which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-in-the blank test.
Recognition A measure of memory in which that person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Relearning A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
Priming The activation, often often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
Déja Vu That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Mood-congruent Memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Proactive Interference The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Retroactive Interference The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
Repression In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Source Amnesia Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called misattribution)
Eyewitness Memory/ Testimony An individual's memory of an event, often a crime or an accident of some kind, that was personally witnessed.
Created by: APPsychology