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Psychology Unit Two

Sensation Stimulus that activates or excites sensory receptors
Perception Process of interpreting, organizing, and elaborating on information detected by sensory receptors.
Sensory Receptors* Cells located in sense organs that detect environmental information. Translates information into nerve impulses the brain can interpret or understand
Theories of language development* Behaviorists (language is acquired via operant conditioning), nativist (humans are hard wired to learn it. Language acquisition device LAD), and interactionist (Language is innate and influenced by the environment).
Theories explaining how we see color* Trichromatic theory (three types of cones) and opponent-process theory (cells responding to short wavelengths inhibited when long wave lengths are detects and vice versa).
Neurotransmitters Serotonin (mood, emotions sleep, and appetite), Dopamine (motor abilities and thinking).
Central nervous system (CNS)* Composed of the brain and spinal cord. Interprets information from the environment & tells the body how to react. It interprets & stores information from sense organs, decides behavior to perform, & sends messages to the muscles regarding how to respond.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) The rest of the nervous system (not the brain and spinal cord) It carries messages from the sense organs to CNS and from CNS muscles and glands. It acts as a messenger.
Somatic & autonomic nervous systems Somatic nervous system-sense the world, to move, and to perform behaviors. The autonomic nervous system regulates many basic functions
Sympathetic nervous systems Sympathetic nervous system mobilizes the body’s resources during stress or emergency. It controls the fight or flight response. It alters blood flow, allows for release of adrenaline, and allows for the release of endorphins.
parasympathetic nervous systems Parasympathetic nervous system has the opponent parts of the autonomic nervous system. It conserves energy and is in control when you are not stressed or in danger. Its main function is keep things running smoothly and calm the body down after stress.
Difference Threshold Smallest difference between two objects that can be reliably detected.
Sensory adaptation Ways we biologically filter information detected by our sense receptors.
Gestalt Principles of vision* Gestalt psychologists first to understand how we make sense of out visual world.
Convergence When we focus our eyes on an object, they turn inwards a bit. By doing this we are able to look at an object from slightly different angles.
Retinal disparity Each eye sees a slightly different visual image. It occurs because our eyes are separated from each other by a small distance.
Glial cells Neural cells that help with myelination, providing nutrients to neurons, protecting neurons from toxins, and removing debris when neurons die.
Pain & sense of touch Impulses signaling pain must pass through neurological gate within spinal cord to reach brain.
Types of brain scans Pet scans- detect glucose. MRI-Magnetic fields to create high contrast pictures of the brain. fMRI-Looks at the brain during a task and it captures many brain images per second.
Attention How we psychologically filter information detected by our sense receptors
Sense of taste Taste receptors are located on the tongue, in throat, roof of mouth, and inside of cheeks. The small bumps on the tongue are called papillae and taste buds line side of papillae.
Myelin A layer that covers the axon of a neuron.
Brain lobes Frontal lobes-Higher thought function Parietal lobes- Pain, pressure, touch, and temperature. Occipital lobes-interpretation of visual information. Temporal lobes- Memory, perception, emotion, interpreting auditory information, and language comprehensi
Aspects of perpetual constancy Shape, location, size, brightness, and color.
Sense of hearing (sense receptors & psychological dimensions) Corti contains sensory receptors we use to hear. Sound ways pass into ear and hit the ear drums.
Innate abilities/traits shared by humans Reflexes, interest in novelty, desire to manipulate/explore objects, impulse to play, and basic cognitive skills.
Linkage studies Used to identify genes associated with physical or mental conditions. Looking for patters of inheritance within families where a specific condition is common.
Genotype & phenotype Genotype is an individual’s genetic make-up; their genes. Phenotype is is the physical expression of genes; observable traits.
Sensory thresholds Ways we biologically filter information detected by our sense receptors
Ways we filter sensory information* Sensory thresholds, sensory adaptation, and attention.
Hormones Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands. (melatonin, adrenal, and sex hormones).
Heritability Statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals in a group.
Brain areas* Lateralization-Each hemisphere is specialized for different functions Corpus Callosum-Mediates information flow between hemispheres Cerebrum-It is divided into two hemispheres Cerebral Cortex-highly plastic
Basic Psychological dimensions of our visual world Hue(A color or shade), brightness, and saturation(pure/washedout).
Created by: Priyanka_sharma