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CH 3

what is Sensation? The experience of sensory information, includes smells, sights, sounds, tastes, balance, touch, & pain (raw data) of experience.
What is Perception? Mental process of sorting, identifying, & arranging these bits into meaningful patterns.
What do Sensation & perception have in common? are the foundation of consciousness, & tells us what’s happening inside& outside of our bodies.
What are receptor cells/stimulates a RC? Specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy. Light waves, sound vibrations, airborne or blood borne chemical molecules stimulates a receptor cell.
What is absolute THRESHOLD? Least amount of energy that can be detected as a stimulation 50% of the time, it’s quite low for human senses.
What is sensory adaptation? adjustment of the senses to the level of stimulation they’re receiving.
What is Weber's Law? 1830’s that the difference is a constant fraction or proportion of the specific stimulus being judged. Sound: 0.3% (1/3 of 1%) Taste: 20%(1/5) Weight:2%(1/50)
What percentage of human sense receptors are in our eyes? 70%
What is the cornea? transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye).
What is the Pupil? small opening in the iris through which lights enters the eye), the IRIS is the colored part of the eye.
What is the Lens? (transparent part of eye inside pupil that focuses light onto retina).
What is the Retina? lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light in the back of the eyeball.)
What/where is the blindspot? where the axons of all ganglion cells leave the eye & where there are no receptors, therefore the object won’t be seen, its a small spot on the retina
What do pupils do in darklight? dialate, or get bigger to let more light in.
What do pupils do in Bright Light? pupil contracts to make it smaller to protect the eye & to see better.
Where/what is the Fovea?Are there Rods? depressed spot that is the center of the visual field, only cones are in here(only for bright light), there are NO RODS.
What/where are Receptor Cells? On the retina these cells are sensitive to only a fraction of the spectrum of electromagnetic energy, including light ( small segment of the EM spectrum to which my eyes are sensitive to)
How many types of Receptor Cells are there? two types, Rods & Cones
What are Rods? like black and white colors only not colors, responsible for night vision & perception of brightness sensitive in dark for 20 min/reach max sensitivity after 30 min. Rods, more sensitive to light than cones. Greatest density just outside of the fovea.
What are Cones? color & vision,see well in the light/dark with cones.less sensitive to light than rods are found in the Fovea, (images taken at highest quality)no rods r here. Cones are sensitive in the dark for first 5-10min, then they don’t get any more sensitive.
What does each retina/eye have? 120 million rods & 8 million cones.
What is Visual Acuity? ability to visually distinguish fine details. (Greek for “sharp”).
What is Visual Adaptation? sensitivity of rod & cone changes according to how much light is available.
What is Dark Adaptation? Process by which rods & cones become more sensitive to light in response to lowered levels of illumination. Not enough energy in the dark to stimulate two cones to respond to colors, In the dark u only see black, white, & grey.
What is Light Adaptation? decreased sensitivity of rods & cones in bright light( takes 1 min), for rods & cones to be adapted.
What is an After Image? sense experiences that occurs after a visual stimulus has been removed if stimulation remained constant & eyes adapted completely, all receptors would become sensitized & we wouldn’t be able to see.
What are Ganglion cells? neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain
What is Optic Chiasm? point near base of the brain where some fibers in the optic nerve from each eye cross to the other side of the brain.
What are Feature detectors? Highly specialized brain cells to detect particular elements of the visual field. Such as horizontal or vertical lines, even detects movement or lines of specific orientation.
What does the left hemisphere control? right side of body, touch, movement, language, logic, speech, writing controls of right hand.
What does the Right Hemisphere Control? left side of body, touch, movement, spatial abilities, control of left hand.
What are Bipolar cells? specialized neurons with one axon & one dendrite:
What are Hues? Many different colors are known as hues. There are 150 distinct hues that most people can recognize. What hues I can see depends on the wavelength of the light reaching my eyes.
What is Saturation? richness or vividness of 1 type of color(hue)
What is Brightness? the nearness of a color to white as opposed to black.
What is Additive Color Mixing? Process of mixing lights of different wavelengths to create new hues.
What is subtractive color mixing? process of mixing pigments each of which absorbs some wavelengths of light & reflects others.
What is the difference between light and Paint? light uses wavelengths, paint uses absorbed & reflected.
What is the Trichomatic Theory? Theory of color vision that holds that all color perception derives from three different color receptors in the retina (usually red, green, & blue receptors), also accounts for some color blindness.
What are Trichomats? people who have normal color vision, these people perceive all hues by combining the 3 primary colors.
What % of people are color blind? 10% of men,1% of women display this.
What are Dichromats? People blind to either red-green, or yellow-blue.
What are monochromats? people totally color-blind, extremely rare.
What is the Opponent process theory? Theory of color vision that holds the three sets of color receptors (yellow- blue, red- green, black-white) respond to determine the color you experience.
what is transduction? process by which any sensory info such as light, sound, pressure, etc is transferred to a neural impulse. Happens at Retina=rods & cones.
what is the sound wave process(think german….EHASOCBOHATT)? 1. Eardrum(tympanic membrane) 2. Hammer 3. Anvil 4. Stirrup 5. Oval window 6. Cochlea 7. Basilar membrane 8. Organ of corti (transduction) 9. Hair cells 10. Auditory nerve 11. Thalamus 12. Temporal lobe
What is the Light Wave Process? 1. Cornea 2. Pupil(iris) 3. Lens 4. Rods 5. Cones(concentration in fovea) on Retina 6. Bipolar Cells 7. Ganglion Cells 8. Optic Nerves 9. Optic chiasm 10. Thalamus 11. Occipital lobe
What is/where Echolocation? neurons in auditory systems. Extract an extraordinary amount of info from these echoes.
What is sound? sensation is our brain’s interpretation of the ebb & flow of air molecules pounding on our eardrums. Our brains’ response to changes in air pressure that are received by the auditory system.
What are sound waves? changes in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another & then move apart again.
What is a Sine? simplest sound wave it’s heard as a pure tone.
What is Frequency? the # of cycles/sec in a wave: in sound the primary determinant of pitch.
What is a Hertz(Hz)?What frequencies does the human ear respond to? cycles/sec; unit of measurement for the frequency of sound waves. Human ear responds to frequencies of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz.
What is amplitude? Height of wave, amplitude + frequency = loudness of a sound.
What are Decibels? loudness of sound is measured in this.
What is pitch? How high or low a sound is ( frequency of sound vibrations)
What are overtones? tones that result from sound waves that are multiples of the basic tone: primarily determinant of timbre, tuning forks make an almost pure tone.
What is timbre? complex patter of overtones “ texture” of a sound,……. hearing is BILATERAL
What is the place theory? theory that different pitches stimulate different places on the basilar membrane.
What is the Frequency theory? theory that pitch is determined by the location of greatest vibration on basilar membrane. It accounts for the ear’s responses to frequencies of up to about 4,000 Hz.
What is the volley principle? refinement of frequency theory ; it suggests that receptors in ear fire in sequence, with one group responding then a second, then a third, etc. So that the complete pattern of firing corresponds to the frequency of the sound wave.
What do modern humans have? have 5 million receptor cells devoted to the sense of smell, sheepdogs have 220 million RC’s, humans smell is 10,000x more sensitive than our sense of taste.
What is the Olfactory Epithellium? nasal membranes containing receptor cells sensitive to odors. Packed with millions of receptor cells.
What is the OBP?What sense is activated by this? Odorant Binding Protein in a nasal gland, sense of smell is activated by this.
What is the Olfactory Bulb? axons from millions of receptors in the Olfactory Epithelium go to this, where some recoding takes place. From OB, messages routed via olfactory tract to temporal lobes of the brain, result in my awareness of smells. Messages are related to brain core
What is anosmia? loss of sense of smell. Women have better sense of smell then men, sharpest sense of smell is from 20-40 years.
What are Pheromones? Chemical molecules(invisible & odorless)communicate info to other members of a species, & influence their behavior. They’re separated by glands/ urine. They provide info about another animal’s ID “flight or fight”, stress, sex represiv, and aggression.
What is the Vomeronasal organ(VNO)? location of receptors for pheromones in the roof of nasal cavity. It sends messages to a second olfactory bulb that’s designed to interpret phermonal communications. Stimulation of the VNO also activates the hypothalamus& amygdala
What are omnivores? eat everything, ex:humans. Flavor: combo of taste & smell. Umami: one of 5 basic tastes(sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and now MSG), it accounts for our sensitivity to monosodium glutamate & related proteins.
What are taste buds? receptor cells for my sense of taste are here, most are found on the tip, sides, and back of the tongue.
What is the tongue's papillae? taste buds are here, they’re bumps on the tongue, each taste bud has a cluster of taste receptors which die and replace every 7 days, people can accurately ID a taste within 1/10 of a sec after something salty has touched the tongue.
what are the structures of a taste bud? 1. Taste buds in papillae 2. chemicals in food dissolve in saliva & come into contact with the taste receptors within the taste buds. 3. Adjacent neurons fire sending nerve impulses to brain’s parietal lobe where messages are perceived as taste
What are kinesthetic senses? senses of muscle movement, posture, & strain on muscles & joints. Stretch receptors: receptors that sense muscle, stretch, & contraction, they’re attached to muscle fibers & different nerve endings AKS Golgi tendon organs are attached to tendons.
what are the Golgi tendon receptors? attached to stretch receptors & tendons, these receptors sense movement of the tendons.
What are vestibular senses? originate in inner ear: it senses the equilibrium & body position in space.
What are semicircular canals? movement & fluid in the this relays messages about speed & direction of body rotation.
What are vestibular sacs? movement of fluid in the two VS gives me info about movement forward & backward, up/down, & sense of gravitation.
What are paradoxical heat? touching hot & cold at same time, my brain reads it as touching something “hot”, when I’m actually touching something cold & hot.
What is the phantom limbic phenommenon? Pain that feels like it’s coming from a body part that has been amputated.
What are individual differences? Each person varies widely in both pain threshold (amount of stimulation required to feel pain) & pain tolerance.
What is the "gate theory"? “ neurological gate” in spinal cord controls transmission of pain impulses to brain. If gate is open we experience more pain than if it was closed.
What is the biopsychosocial theory? That the interaction of biological, psychosocial, & cultural factors influence the intensity & duration of pain. That all pain results from these 3 factors.
What are alternative approaches? switching to alternative medicine to treat intractable pain. Ex: acupuncture & hypnosis.
What is the Placebo effect? pain relief that occurs when a person believes a pill or procedure will reduce pain. The actual cause of relief comes from endorphins not the pill or procedure
What is perception? takes place in brain, uses sensory info as raw material brain creates perceptual experiences that go beyond what we sense directly “gestalt psych”.
What is a figure? entity perceived to stand apart from the background.
What is a ground? background against which a figure appears.
What is Perceptual Constancy? tendency to perceive objects as stable & unchanging despite changes in sensory stimulation. Its based on memory & experiences and it influences how we see human faces & figures.
What is size constancy? perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it’s viewed.
What is sharpe constancy? tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it’s viewed from.
What is color constancy? an inclination to perceive familiar objects as retaining their color despite changes in sensory info.
What are Monocular cues? visual cues that one eye can transmit visual messages
What are Binocular cues? cues depend on visual messages requiring use of both eyes. Allows me to make more accurate judgments about distance & depth, especially when objects are close.
what is aerial perspective? monocular cue, distant objects have a hazy appearance & a somewhat blurred outline. Based on distance & depth. Ex: Mtns seem closer on a clear day than on a hazy day.
What is texture gradient? Monocular cue based on distance & depth where objects seen at greater distances appear to be smoother & less textured.
What is linear perspective? Monocular cue, based on distance & depth, two parallel lines come together at the horizon.
What is motion parallax? Monocular distance cue, objects close to me seem to move in the direction opposite from the way my head is moving, whereas objects far away seem to move in the same direction that I’m traveling in.
what is stereoscopic vision? Result of combining two retinal images, makes depth perception & distance more accurate. Visual fields overlap when eyes are in front and not the side of the head(deer), giving that animal with the eyes in front quite an advantage(tiger)(Binocular cue).
What is retinal disparity? Binocular distance cue, based on difference between two images that the eyes receive, when both eyes are focused on the same object.
What is convergence? Binocular cue, comes from muscles controlling eye movement as eyes turn inward to view an objectclose to me. If object is to close then eyes can’t converge & two separate images are created No convergence when it few meters away(eyes are more parallel).
What is a monoAURAL cue? cue to sound location using one ear. Loud sounds are perceived closer than faint sounds.
What is a BinAURAL cue? Cue to sound location using both ears working together
What is real movement? when objects move from 1 position to another.
What is apparent movement? an illusion that occurs when I think objects are moving when they’re actually still.
What is autokinetic illusion? Form of apparent movement, motion of 1 point of light or small object when seen in a dark room & observed continuously.
What is stroboscopic motion? Apparent movement, an illusion that results from flashing a series of still pictures in rapid succession as in a motion picture( not really in motion). The still images makes it look like it’s in motion.
What is phi phenommenon? Happens as a result of stroboscopic motion, caused by flashing lights in sequence, as on theater marquees.
what is Induced movement? when I sit on a train, & the train next to me moves forward, it looks like I’m moving backward, I have no reference point till I look at my feet.
What is perceptual illusion? illusion due to misleading cues in stimuli, that gives rise to inaccurate or impossible perceptions.
What is Perception? Combo of info from our senses, past experiences & the wiring of our brains.
Created by: BarackObama13
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